Parkinson’s Disease – Cannabis THC : CBD Ratios

Parkinson's Disease Research Dashboard

45

Primary Studies

31

Related Studies

76

Total Studies

Clinical Studies

2

Double-blind human trials

3

Clinical human trials

Pre-Clinical Studies

19

Meta-analyses/Reviews

14

Animal studies

7

Laboratory studies

State of the Science

Clinical Guidance:
FDA Approval:
EU Approval:
Overall Positive Results: 93%
Positive Clinical Results: 100%

Studies by Country of Researcher

No data to display

Studies by Chemotype (THC:CBD Ratio)

No data to display

Clinical Dosing Summary

Data available for 2 studies.

Synopsis of Cannabis Research for Parkinson's Disease

Over 40 studies (including a handful of clinical trials) have been published that directly examined endocannabinoid system-induced effects on patients with PD. The underlying pathology of PD typically involves complex clinical manifestations such oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation and pain for example and as such any novel treatment strategies ought to be able address this complexity by simultaneously targeting multiple pathways and mechanisms in order to stop and/or slow down the neurodegenerative processes. Cannabinoids (primarily CBD but also THC, anandamide) acting on classical cannabinoid receptor sites (CB1 and CB2) and a variety of other cannabinoid sensitive receptor sites (e.g. TRPV1, PPAR, dopamine, glutamate, GABA) have demonstrated a considerable therapeutic impact by attenuating signs and symptoms such as inflammation, oxidative stress, pain, stress, tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, mood disorders (e.g. depression), and insomnia for example. Adverse effects such as changes in cognition, ataxia, motor skills, dysphoria, dependence are typically THC dose dependent and can be avoided by the utilization of a cannabis chemotype III (THCCBD) and lastly by a chemotype II (THC=CBD). Other cannabis common terpenes that have shown relevant therapeutic effects in primary trials include β-Caryophyllene, nerolidol, and perillyl alcohol (a precursor to limonene).

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45 PRIMARY STUDIES | 76 TOTAL STUDIES

From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Effects of acute cannabidiol administration on anxiety and tremors induced by a Simulated Public Speaking Test in patients with Parkinson's disease

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2020

Current Aspects of the Endocannabinoid System and Targeted THC and CBD Phytocannabinoids as Potential Therapeutics for Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Diseases: a Review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Biological bases for a possible effect of cannabidiol in Parkinson's disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Cannabidiol exerts protective effects in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease activating AKT/mTOR pathway

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Medical cannabis as an alternative therapeutics for Parkinsons' disease: Systematic review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Endocannabinoid Signalling in Parkinson's Disease: A Perspective on Associated Therapeutic Interventions

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Cannabidiol increases the nociceptive threshold in a preclinical model of Parkinson's disease

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Cannabidiol in Parkinson’s disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Microglial Phenotypes and Their Relationship to the Cannabinoid System: Therapeutic Implications for Parkinson's Disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Beneficial effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ 9-THCV in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Targeting the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in a mouse model of l-dopa induced dyskinesia

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a synthetic agonist of cannabinoid receptor, increases CB 1 R gene expression and reduces dyskinesias in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Expression of GPR55 and either cannabinoid CB 1 or CB 2 heteroreceptor complexes in the caudate, putamen, and accumbens nuclei of control, parkinsonian, and dyskinetic non-human primates

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Melatonin and cannabinoids: mitochondrial-targeted molecules that may reduce inflammaging in neurodegenerative diseases

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Pros and Cons of Marijuana in Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Cannabidiol and Cannabinoid Compounds as Potential Strategies for Treating Parkinson's Disease and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Evidence for the use of cannabinoids in Parkinson's disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Marijuana for Parkinson’s Disease?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

The therapeutic role of cannabinoid receptors and its agonists or antagonists in Parkinson's disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Regional Changes in the Type 1 Cannabinoid Receptor Are Associated With Cognitive Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

β-Caryophyllene (BCP) ameliorates MPP+ induced cytotoxicity.

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2018

Evaluation of Phytomedicinal Potential of Perillyl Alcohol in an in Vitro Parkinson's Disease Model

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2018

Neuroprotective Effects of β-Caryophyllene against Dopaminergic Neuron Injury in a Murine Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Induced by MPTP.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2017

Effect of medical cannabis on thermal quantitative measurements of pain in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2017

Targeting the cannabinoid CB2 receptor to attenuate the progression of motor deficits in LRRK2-transgenic mice.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

Cannabinoid Type 2 (CB2) Receptors Activation Protects against Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation Associated Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Rotenone Model of Parkinson's Disease.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition for the symptomatic relief of Parkinson's disease.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

Cannabinoid-dopamine interactions in the physiology and physiopathology of the basal ganglia.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Potential of the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor as a pharmacological target against inflammation in Parkinson's disease.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

Protective Effect of Geraniol on the Transgenic Drosophila Model of Parkinson's Disease

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

Neuroprotective effect of nerolidol against neuroinflammation and oxidative stress induced by rotenone

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

The neuroprotection of cannabidiol against MPP(+)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells involves trkA receptors, upregulation of axonal and synaptic proteins, neuritogenesis, and might be relevant to Parkinson's disease.

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2015

Promising cannabinoid-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease: motor symptoms to neuroprotection

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

Identification of CB₂ receptors in human nigral neurons that degenerate in Parkinson's disease.

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2015

Oleoylethanolamide reduces L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia via TRPV1 receptor in a mouse model of Parkinson´s disease.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2014

Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease patients: a case series.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2014

Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease: an exploratory double-blind trial.

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2014

Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures.

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2012

Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) exerts a direct neuroprotective effect in a human cell culture model of Parkinson's disease.

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2012

WIN55,212-2, a Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist, Protects Against Nigrostriatal Cell Loss in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2009

Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's disease

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2009

Cannabinoids and neuroprotection in basal ganglia disorders.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2007

Survey on cannabis use in Parkinson's disease: Subjective improvement of motor symptoms.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2004

Cannabinoids reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2001

31 RELATED STUDIES | 76 TOTAL STUDIES

Cannabidiol (CBD)

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

The pharmacological case for cannabigerol (CBG)

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Cannabinoids and Dementia: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Data

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in neuropsychiatric disorders: A review of pre-clinical and clinical findings

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 as novel molecular targets: their biological functions and interaction with cannabidiol

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2019

A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Medical Cannabis for Psychiatric, Movement and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Cannabidiol as a Promising Strategy to Treat and Prevent Movement Disorders?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Cannabis Therapeutics and the Future of Neurology

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2018

Medical Cannabis for Pediatric Moderate to Severe Complex Motor Disorders

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2018

Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Signaling In Neurodegenerative Disorders: From Pathogenesis To A Promising Therapeutic Target

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2017

Neurological Aspects Of Medical Use Of Cannabidiol

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2017

GPR3 And GPR6, Novel Molecular Targets For Cannabidiol

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2017

Endocannabinoid System: A Multi-Facet Therapeutic Target.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Amyloid Proteotoxicity Initiates An Inflammatory Response Blocked By Cannabinoids

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2016

Endocannabionoid System In Neurological Disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Cannabinoids In Neurodegenerative Disorders And Stroke/Brain Trauma: From Preclinical Models To Clinical Applications

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

Cannabinoids and Tremor Induced by Motor-related Disorders: Friend or Foe?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

The Influence Of Cannabinoids On Generic Traits Of Neurodegeneration

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2014

Cannabidiol as an Emergent Therapeutic Strategy for Lessening the Impact of Inflammation on Oxidative Stress.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2011

Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2011

Cannabinoid Receptors and Endocannabinoids: Role in Neuroinflammatory and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2010

Therapeutic Potential Of Non-Psychotropic Cannabidiol In Ischemic Stroke

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2010

Treatment of a hyperkinetic movement disorder during pregnancy with dronabinol.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2009

Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2009

Targeting the endocannabinoid system: to enhance or reduce?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2008

In-vitro inhibition of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase by salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil and constituent terpenes.

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2000

Cannabis In Movement Disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 1999

Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 1999

Overview - Parkinson's Disease

Description of Parkinson's Disease

Western medicine considers Parkinson's disease a chronic degenerative brain/nervous system disorder. An estimated 50,000 new cases of Parkinson's arise in the U.S. every year. Scientists believe that this degenerative disease results from the loss of specific nerve cells that produce the chemical dopamine (a naturally occurring neurotransmitter). Orthodox medicine does not have a cure and treatment is mostly limited to pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. levodopa).

Disease Classification

Condition: Parkinson's Disease
Disease Family: Neurological Condition
Organ System: Nervous System
ICD-10 Chapter: Diseases of the Nervous System
ICD-10 Code: G20

Parkinson's Disease Symptoms:

Shaking extremities, blank expressions, loss of balance, stiffness, shuffling steps, difficulty swallowing, insomnia, emotional problems

Also known as:

PD, Parkinsonism, Restrictive lung mechanics due to parkinsons disease, Dementia in parkinsons disease

Drug Interactions

THC Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • THC can enhance the effects of drugs that cause sedation and depress the central nervous system, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol, for example. 
  • THC is metabolized by and an inhibitor of a number of enzymatic liver pathways referred to as cytochrome P450. There are more than 50 enzymes belonging to this enzyme family, a number of which are responsible for the breakdown of common drugs such as antidepressants (e.g. amitriptyline, doxepine, fluvoxamine), antipsychotics (haloperidol, clozapine, stelazine), or beta-blockers (propranolol, theophylline, warfarin).  Thus patients taking these classes of medication may find that THC increases the concentration and effects of these drugs as well as the duration of their effects.
  • Clinical observation suggests no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 20mg THC.

CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • CBD may alter action on metabolic enzymes (certain drug-transport mechanisms), and as such may alter interactions with other drugs, some of which may produce therapeutic or adverse effects. For instance, CBD interacts with the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 2C19, increasing the bioavailability of anti-epileptic drugs such as clobazam (a benzodiazepine). This makes it possible to achieve the same results at significantly lower dosages, reducing treatment costs and risks of adverse effects. 
  • Groups of drugs affected include: anti-epileptic drugs, psychiatric drugs, and drugs affecting metabolic enzymes, for example.
  • Clinical observations suggest no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 100mg CBD

Dosing Considerations

THC Dosage Considerations

  • THC micro dose:  0.1 mg to 0.4 mg (0.001mg/kg to 0.005mg/kg)
  • THC low dose:  0.5 mg to 5 mg (0.006mg/kg to 0.06mg/kg)
  • THC medium dose:  6 mg to 20 mg (0.08mg/kg to 0.27mg/kg)
  • THC high dose:  21 mg to 50+ mg (0.28mg/kg to 0.67mg/kg)
Formula for converting a set dose into mg/kg considerations: mg ÷ kg = mg/kg
(sample conversion calculated on a person weighing 75kg)

CBD Dosage Considerations

  • CBD low dose:  0.4 mg to 19 mg (0.005mg/kg to 0.25mg/kg)
  • CBD medium dose: 20 mg to 99 mg (0.26mg/kg to 1.32mg/kg)
  • CBD high dose:  100 mg to 800+ mg (1.33mg/kg to 10.7mg/kg)
  • (upper limits tested ~1,500mg)
Formula for converting a set dose into mg/kg considerations: mg ÷ kg = mg/kg
(sample conversion calculated on a person weighing 75kg)
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Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.