Digestive System – Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research

Digestive System Research Dashboard

548

Primary Studies

0

Related Studies

548

Total Studies

Clinical Studies

12

Clinical Meta-analyses

45

Double-blind Clinical Trials

40

Clinical Trials

Pre-Clinical Studies

220

Meta-analyses/Reviews

141

Animal Studies

90

Laboratory Studies

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CannaKeys has 548 studies associated with Digestive System.

Here is a small sampling of Digestive System studies by title:


Components of the Digestive System Research Dashboard

  • Medical conditions associated with Digestive System
  • Synopsis of cannabis research for Digestive System
  • Chemotype guidance for Digestive System
  • Individual study details for Digestive System

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Overview - Digestive System

Description of Digestive System

The digestive system is responsible for the digestion, absorption, and elimination of food and drink and psychic (mental/emotional) materials. It begins at the mouth (saliva, chewing), goes down throat and esophagus, enters the stomach, (it passes the liver, gall-bladder and pancreas), enters the small intestines, moves into the large intestines (ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum), and ending with the anus. Additionally, the digestive tract is home to the microbiome (a vast colony of micro-organisms). A healthy microbiome positively affects mood (e.g. the feel good molecule serotonin is primarily made in the gut), energy production, and immune responses for instance. In contrast, when unhealthy (pathological) microbes take over we lose resilience and become vulnerable to disease.  

Digestive System and ECS-Based Interactions

The ECS (receptor sites, cannabinoids, degrading enzymes, and related compounds) are widely distributed throughout the gut (including the enteric immune system) with regional differences and organ-specific actions. The ECS, either in part or significantly, modulates taste, appetite or satiation and be extension weight (via CB1), produce gut-protection (i.e. without effective gut barrier bacterial-based lipopolysaccharide (LPI) seep into the blood causing chronic low-grade inflammation-a causative factor atherosclerosis for example), digestion (e.g. gastric secretion, energy balance/metabolism), the movement of chime (gut motility), and the modulation of nausea and vomiting for example. The ECS may also support a healthy microbiome which in turn improves mood and immune function, assist in neutralizing toxins, and helps to synthesize vitamins (e.g. K and certain B’s). Dysfunction of the ECS (e.g. poor ECS-tone, ECS-deficiency) may play a significant role in chronic gut (e.g. IBS, Crohn’s disease) and mood disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety).

Digestive System Medical Specialists

Gastrologist, Gastroenterologist, Enterologist, Proctologist

Also Known As:

Gastrointestinal  System, Excretory System, Alimentary Canal

Drug Interactions

THC Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can enhance the effects of drugs that cause sedation and depress the central nervous system, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol. 
  • THC is metabolized by an inhibitor of several enzymatic liver pathways referred to as cytochrome P450 (aka CYP450). There are more than 50 enzymes belonging to this enzyme family, several of which are responsible for the breakdown of common drugs such as antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, doxepin, fluvoxamine), antipsychotics (haloperidol, clozapine, Stelazine), beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol), bronchodilators (e.g., theophylline), or blood thinners (e.g., warfarin). Thus, patients taking these medication classes may find that THC increases the concentration and effects of these drugs and the impact duration.
  • Clinical observation (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggests no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 20mg THC.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with THC, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Cannabidiol (CBD) may alter the action of metabolic enzymes (specific drug-transport mechanisms) and alter interactions with other drugs, some of which may produce therapeutic or adverse effects. For instance, CBD interacts with the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 2C19, increasing the bioavailability of anti-epileptic drugs such as clobazam (a benzodiazepine). This makes it possible to achieve the same results at significantly lower dosages, reducing treatment costs and risks of adverse effects. 
  • Groups of drugs affected include anti-epileptics, psychiatric drugs, and drugs affecting metabolic enzymes.
  • Clinical observations (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggest no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 100mg CBD.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

THC/CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

In general, when using cannabinoid-based therapeutics that contain both THC and CBD consider the ratio between them and weigh the relevant information displayed in the individual THC and CBD Drug Interaction windows accordingly.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with both primary cannabinoids and THC/CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

Concerns about Cannabis and Cancer-related Immunotherapies:
Some recent clinical observational studies have suggested that the co-administration of cannabinoid-based therapeutics and immunotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of certain types of cancer has been associated with worse overall survival rates (T. Taha et al., 2019; A. Biedny et al., 2020; G. Bar-Sela et al., 2020).

However, other studies have suggested that the co-commitment use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and cannabis-induced no such deleterious effects. More specifically, one trial was conducted on animals resulting in data suggesting that cannabis did not negatively affect the properties of immune checkpoint inhibitors (B. Waissengrin et al., 2023). The same authors compared the previous study results with findings from a cohort of 201 patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who received treatment with monotherapy pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment and adjunct cannabis to treat mainly pain and loss of appetite. Their time to tumor progression was 6.1 versus 5.6 months, and overall survival differed between 54.9 versus 23.6 months in cannabis-naïve patients and cannabis-using patients, respectively. However, while numerically different, the authors write that these differences were not statistically significant, leading them to suggest that “These data provide reassurance regarding the absence of a deleterious effect of cannabis in this clinical setting.”

Dosing Considerations

THC Dosage Considerations

  • THC micro dose:  0.1 mg to 0.4 mg
  • THC low dose:  0.5 mg to 5 mg
  • THC medium dose:  6 mg to 20 mg
  • THC high dose:  21 mg to 50+ mg

CBD Dosage Considerations

  • CBD low dose:  0.4 mg to 19 mg
  • CBD medium dose: 20 mg to 99 mg
  • CBD high dose:  100 mg to 800+ mg (upper limits tested ~1,500mg)

Disclaimer
Information on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own licensed physician or other medical professional. You should not use the information contained herein for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. If using a product, you should read carefully all product packaging. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider.

Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.