Urinary System – Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research

Urinary System Research Dashboard

46

Primary Studies

18

Related Studies

64

Total Studies

Clinical Studies

6

Double-blind, placebo-controlled human trials

2

Clinical human trials

Pre-Clinical Studies

18

Meta-analyses/Reviews

13

Animal studies

7

Laboratory studies

Studies by Country of Researcher

Studies by Chemotype (THC:CBD Ratio)

Synopsis of Cannabis Research for the Urinary System

Endocannabinoid cannabinoid receptor types (CB1, CB2) have been discovered in the kidneys and the lower urinary tract cells of mammals (i.e. monkeys and humans) and it is generally agreed upon that in healthy individuals the ECS plays a significant role in producing kidney homeostasis. To date, the specific mechanisms by which CB1 or CB2 receptors are involved in the pathology of acute kidney injuries (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is subject to ongoing investigation and research has produced interesting results. For instance, while a number of case studies have shown that the usage of synthetic cannabinoids (those commonly found in potent street drugs such as 'spice' or 'K2') have caused AKI in a number of users. Which stands in direct contrast to using plant-based cannabis with no known cases of AKI. In cases of CKD an observational study conducted on 1,225 kidney transplant recipients showed that cannabis use did not increased the risk of death or produced declining kidney function. And, beta-caryophyllene a CB2 activating terpene has shown to be powerful agent in preventing cisplatin-induced (chemotherapeutic agent) kidney toxicity.

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46 PRIMARY STUDIES | 64 TOTAL STUDIES

Cannabis-Derived Compounds Cannabichromene and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Interact and Exhibit Cytotoxic Activity against Urothelial Cell Carcinoma Correlated with Inhibition of Cell Migration and Cytoskeleton Organization

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Nephrologist Views Regarding Cannabinoid Use in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease and Dialysis: A Survey

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Dual inhibition of cannabinoid CB 1 receptor and inducible NOS attenuates obesity-induced chronic kidney disease

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition as potential treatment for interstitial cystitis

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2019

A Review of Cannabis in Chronic Kidney Disease Symptom Management

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

The effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on Krüppel-like factor-4 expression, redox homeostasis, and inflammation in the kidney of diabetic rat

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2019

Cannabis Impacts Tumor Response Rate to Nivolumab in Patients with Advanced Malignancies

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

The Association Between Tetrahydrocannabinol and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Utilizing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Normalises Bladder Function and Reduces Pain Through Normalising the Anandamide/Palmitoylethanolamine Ratio in the Inflamed Bladder of Rats

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2019

Involvement of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor in cell growth inhibition and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212–2 in renal cell carcinoma.

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2018

Potential of Endocannabinoids to Control Bladder Pain.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Medical marijuana for urologic chronic pelvic pain.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Impact of cannabidiol treatment on regulatory T-17 cells and neutrophil polarization in acute kidney injury

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2018

Dual therapy targeting the endocannabinoid system prevents experimental diabetic nephropathy.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2017

Bladder Cancer Cell Growth and Motility Implicate Cannabinoid 2 Receptor-Mediated Modifications of Sphingolipids Metabolism

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2017

The Therapeutic Aspects of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) for Cancer and their Development: From Nature to Laboratory.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

The endocannabinoid system - a target for the treatment of LUTS?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Association between Plasma Endocannabinoids and Appetite in Hemodialysis Patients: a Pilot Study.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Effects of cannabinoid receptor activation by CP55,940 on normal bladder function and irritation-induced bladder overactivity in non-awake anaesthetised rats

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

Association Between Cannabis Use And The Risk Of Bladder Cancer: Results From The California Men's Health

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

Emerging Therapeutic Targets of Sepsis-Associated Acute Kidney Injury.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathogenesis and treatment of kidney diseases.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

Regulation of inflammation and proliferation of human bladder carcinoma cells by type-1 and type-2 cannabinoid receptors

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2015

Evaluation of selective cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor agonists in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced interstitial cystitis

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2014

Cannabinoids and the Endocannabinoid System in Lower Urinary Tract Function and Dysfunction

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2014

The Effect of Terpene Combination on Ureter Calculus Expulsion After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2014

β-caryophyllene ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a cannabinoid 2 receptor-dependent manner.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2013

Terpene compound drug as medical expulsive therapy for ureterolithiasis: a meta-analysis

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2013

Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Blockade Ameliorates Albuminuria in Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2012

Is There a Legitimate Role for the Therapeutic Use of Cannabinoids for Symptom Management in Chronic Kidney Disease?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2011

Cannabinoids: Potential Targets for Bladder Dysfunction

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2011

Evaluation of the efficiency of tamsulosin and Rowatinex in patients with distal ureteral stones: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2011

Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Is Downregulated In Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2010

Cannabinoid-2 receptor limits inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress and cell death in nephropathy.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2010

CB1 cannabinoid receptors promote oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and cell death in a murine nephropathy model

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2010

Cannabidiol Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity by Decreasing Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress, Inflammation, and Cell Death.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2009

Effect of Rowatinex on calculus clearance after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2009

Up-regulation of TRPV1 in mononuclear cells of end-stage kidney disease patients increases susceptibility to N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA)-induced cell death

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2009

Antiproliferative effects of essential oils and their major constituents in human renal adenocarcinoma and amelanotic melanoma cells.

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2008

The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS).

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2006

Cannabis sativa and dystonia secondary to Wilson's disease.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2005

An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2004

A Preliminary Controlled Study To Determine Whether Whole-plant Cannabis Extracts Can Improve Intractable Neurogenic Symptoms

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2003

A Case of Cannabinoid Rotation in a Young Woman With Chronic Cystitis.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2003

Rowatinex for the treatment of ureterolithiasis

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 1992

The value of Rowatinex in the treatment of ureterolithiasis

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 1987

18 RELATED STUDIES | 64 TOTAL STUDIES

Stimulation of Atypical Cannabinoid Receptor GPR55 Abolishes the Symptoms of Detrusor Overactivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2020

The nephrologist's guide to cannabis and cannabinoids

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

The Relationship between Cannabis and Male Infertility, Sexual Health, and Neoplasm: a Systematic Review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Systematic review of the potential role of cannabinoids as antiproliferative agents for urological cancers

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Endocannabinoid System and the Kidneys: From Renal Physiology to Injury and Disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Cannabis: From a Plant That Modulates Feeding Behaviors toward Developing Selective Inhibitors of the Peripheral Endocannabinoid System for the Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

A Novel Standardized Cannabis sativa L. Extract and Its Constituent Cannabidiol Inhibit Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Functions

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2019

Proximal Tubular Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Regulates Obesity-Induced CKD.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2018

The role of cannabinoid signaling in acute and chronic kidney diseases

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Marijuana and Cannabinoids in ESRD and Earlier Stages of CKD

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Cannabinoids and the kidney: effects in health and disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2017

Cannabinoid receptors in the kidney

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Effect of Non-psychotropic Plant-derived Cannabinoids on Bladder Contractility: Focus on Cannabigerol

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2015

Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in counteracting chemotherapy-induced adverse effects: an exploratory review.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

Advances in transient receptor potential vanilloid-2 channel expression and function in tumor growth and progression

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2014

Role of arachidonoylethanolamine in blood pressure regulation in volume-resistant patients on peritoneal dialysis.

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2012

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome inducing acute prerenal failure and electrolyte disturbance

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2011

Bronchial Effects Of Aerosolized Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol In Healthy And Asthmatic Subjects

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 1977

Overview - Urinary System

Description of Urinary System

The urinary system starts anatomically with the kidneys which functions to eliminate waste (e.g. urea, ammonia, excess minerals) and to balance essential and needed compounds (e.g. metabolites, electrolytes, hormones) on a moment to moment basis. Excess materials or waste travels down the ureter into the bladder where it is collected until such time we choose to urinate when urine is voided through the urethra.

Urinary System and ECS-Based Interactions

Endocannabinoid cannabinoid receptor types (CB1, CB2) have been discovered in the kidneys and the lower urinary tract cells of mammals (i.e. monkeys and humans) and it is generally agreed upon that in healthy individuals the ECS plays a significant role in producing kidney homeostasis. To date, the specific mechanisms by which CB1 or CB2 receptors are involved in the pathology of acute kidney injuries (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is subject to ongoing investigation and research has produced interesting results. For instance, while a number of case studies have shown that the usage of synthetic cannabinoids (those commonly found in potent street drugs such as 'spice' or 'K2') have caused AKI in a number of users. Which stands in direct contrast to using plant-based cannabis with no known cases of AKI. In cases of CKD an observational study conducted on 1,225 kidney transplant recipients showed that cannabis use did not increased the risk of death or produced declining kidney function. And, beta-caryophyllene a CB2 activating terpene has shown to be powerful agent in preventing cisplatin-induced (chemotherapeutic agent) kidney toxicity.

Urinary System Medical Specialists

Urologist, Nephrologist

Also Known As:

Renal System

Drug Interactions

THC Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • THC can enhance the effects of drugs that cause sedation and depress the central nervous system, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol, for example. 
  • THC is metabolized by and an inhibitor of a number of enzymatic liver pathways referred to as cytochrome P450. There are more than 50 enzymes belonging to this enzyme family, a number of which are responsible for the breakdown of common drugs such as antidepressants (e.g. amitriptyline, doxepine, fluvoxamine), antipsychotics (haloperidol, clozapine, stelazine), or beta-blockers (propranolol, theophylline, warfarin).  Thus patients taking these classes of medication may find that THC increases the concentration and effects of these drugs as well as the duration of their effects.
  • Clinical observation suggests no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 20mg THC.

CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • CBD may alter action on metabolic enzymes (certain drug-transport mechanisms), and as such may alter interactions with other drugs, some of which may produce therapeutic or adverse effects. For instance, CBD interacts with the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 2C19, increasing the bioavailability of anti-epileptic drugs such as clobazam (a benzodiazepine). This makes it possible to achieve the same results at significantly lower dosages, reducing treatment costs and risks of adverse effects. 
  • Groups of drugs affected include: anti-epileptic drugs, psychiatric drugs, and drugs affecting metabolic enzymes, for example.
  • Clinical observations suggest no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 100mg CBD

Dosing Considerations

THC Dosage Considerations

  • THC micro dose:  0.1 mg to 0.4 mg (0.001mg/kg to 0.005mg/kg)
  • THC low dose:  0.5 mg to 5 mg (0.006mg/kg to 0.06mg/kg)
  • THC medium dose:  6 mg to 20 mg (0.08mg/kg to 0.27mg/kg)
  • THC high dose:  21 mg to 50+ mg (0.28mg/kg to 0.67mg/kg)
Formula for converting a set dose into mg/kg considerations: mg ÷ kg = mg/kg
(sample conversion calculated on a person weighing 75kg)

CBD Dosage Considerations

  • CBD low dose:  0.4 mg to 19 mg (0.005mg/kg to 0.25mg/kg)
  • CBD medium dose: 20 mg to 99 mg (0.26mg/kg to 1.32mg/kg)
  • CBD high dose:  100 mg to 800+ mg (1.33mg/kg to 10.7mg/kg)
  • (upper limits tested ~1,500mg)
Formula for converting a set dose into mg/kg considerations: mg ÷ kg = mg/kg
(sample conversion calculated on a person weighing 75kg)

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Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.