Urinary System – Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research

Urinary System Research Dashboard

110

Primary Studies

N/A

Related Studies

110

Total Studies

Clinical Studies

1

Clinical Meta-analyses

9

Double-blind, placebo-controlled human trials

24

Clinical human trials

Pre-Clinical Studies

40

Meta-analyses/Reviews

23

Animal studies

13

Laboratory studies

Studies by Country of Researcher

No data to display

Studies by Chemotype (THC:CBD Ratio)

No data to display

Synopsis of Cannabis Research for the Urinary System

Endocannabinoid cannabinoid receptor types (CB1, CB2) have been discovered in the kidneys and the lower urinary tract cells of mammals (i.e. monkeys and humans) and it is generally agreed upon that in healthy individuals the ECS plays a significant role in producing kidney homeostasis. To date, the specific mechanisms by which CB1 or CB2 receptors are involved in the pathology of acute kidney injuries (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is subject to ongoing investigation and research has produced interesting results. For instance, while a number of case studies have shown that the usage of synthetic cannabinoids (those commonly found in potent street drugs such as 'spice' or 'K2') have caused AKI in a number of users. Which stands in direct contrast to using plant-based cannabis with no known cases of AKI. In cases of CKD an observational study conducted on 1,225 kidney transplant recipients showed that cannabis use did not increased the risk of death or produced declining kidney function. And, beta-caryophyllene a CB2 activating terpene has shown to be powerful agent in preventing cisplatin-induced (chemotherapeutic agent) kidney toxicity.

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110 PRIMARY STUDIES

Systemic Changes in Endocannabinoids and Endocannabinoid-like Molecules in Response to Partial Nephrectomy-Induced Ischemia in Humans

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2023

Circulating Endocannabinoid Levels as Potential Biomarkers for Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2023

Effect of Cannabidiol Oil on Post-ureteroscopy Pain for Urinary Calculi: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2023

Association between cannabis use with urological cancers: A population-based cohort study and a mendelian randomization study in the UK biobank

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Anti-cancer properties of cannflavin A and potential synergistic effects with gemcitabine, cisplatin, and cannabinoids in bladder cancer

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2022

The association of bladder cancer and Cannabis: A systematic review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

The perceptions and beliefs of cannabis use among Canadian genitourinary cancer patients

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Protective antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions of β-caryophyllene against sulfasalazine-induced nephrotoxicity in rat

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

The Ameliorate Effects of Nerolidol on Thioacetamide-induced Oxidative Damage in Heart and Kidney Tissue

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

Clinical Utility of a Biomarker to Detect Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury during Percutaneous Cardiovascular Proceduresv

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2022

Kidney Damage and Stress Biomarkers for Early Identification of Drug-Induced Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Anti-inflammatory effects of lavender and eucalyptus essential oils on the in vitro cell culture model of bladder pain syndrome using T24 cells

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2022

Peripheral Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Blockade Ameliorates Cystitis Severity

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

Performance of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in diabetic nephropathy: A meta-analysis

Type of Study: Clinical Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Endocannabinoid System in Polycystic Kidney Disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Acute and long-term effects of cannabinoids on hypertension and kidney injury

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

The Nutraceutical Antihypertensive Action of C-Phycocyanin in Chronic Kidney Disease Is Related to the Prevention of Endothelial Dysfunction

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

Opposite physiological and pathological mTORC1-mediated roles of the CB1 receptor in regulating renal tubular function

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

Cannabinoids for Symptom Management in Patients with Kidney Failure: A Narrative Review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Comparative accuracy of biomarkers for the prediction of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Biomarkers for the early prediction of contrast-induced nephropathy after percutaneous coronary intervention in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Cannabis-Derived Compounds Cannabichromene and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Interact and Exhibit Cytotoxic Activity against Urothelial Cell Carcinoma Correlated with Inhibition of Cell Migration and Cytoskeleton Organization

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Use of cannabis in urological cancer patients: A review to evaluate risk for cancer development, therapeutic use, and symptom management

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

β-Caryophyllene induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation by deregulation of STAT-3/mTOR/AKT signaling in human bladder cancer cells: An in vitro study

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Components of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System as Potential Biomarkers for Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist selectively inhibits the mechanosensitivity of mucosal afferents in the guinea pig bladder

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabinoids in Urology. Which Benign Conditions Might They Be Appropriate to Treat: A Systematic Review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

(+)-trans-Cannabidiol-2-hydroxy pentyl is a dual CB 1 R antagonist/CB 2 R agonist that prevents diabetic nephropathy in mice

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2021

A New Clinical Utility for Tubular Markers to Identify Kidney Responders to Saxagliptin Treatment in Adults With Diabetic Nephropathy

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2021

Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) Inhibition on Biomarkers of Kidney Injury and Vascular Calcification in Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2021

Nephrologist Views Regarding Cannabinoid Use in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease and Dialysis: A Survey

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Geraniol protects against cyclosporine A-induced renal injury in rats: Role of Wnt/β-catenin and PPARγ signaling pathways

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Inhibition in Chronic Kidney Disease: A New Therapeutic Toolbox

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

β-Caryophyllene may attenuate hyperoxaluria-induced kidney dysfunction in rats by regulating stress marker KIM-1/MCP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathway

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Phycocyanobilin is the molecule responsible for the nephroprotective action of phycocyanin in acute kidney injury caused by mercury

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Gut barrier and microbiota changes with glycine and branched-chain amino acid supplementation in chronic haemodialysis patients

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2021

[Droghe d'abuso e rene] Drugs of Abuse and the Kidney

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Dual inhibition of cannabinoid CB 1 receptor and inducible NOS attenuates obesity-induced chronic kidney disease

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Effects of exercise on residual renal function in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis: A post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2020

A Phase I, Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Trial of the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Subjects with Mild to Severe Renal Impairment

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2020

Changes in Novel AKI Biomarkers after Exercise. A Systematic Review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

The urothelium, the urinary microbioma and men LUTS: a systematic review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Systematic review of the potential role of cannabinoids as antiproliferative agents for urological cancers

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Cannabis Impacts Tumor Response Rate to Nivolumab in Patients with Advanced Malignancies

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Normalises Bladder Function and Reduces Pain Through Normalising the Anandamide/Palmitoylethanolamine Ratio in the Inflamed Bladder of Rats

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2019

Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition as potential treatment for interstitial cystitis

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2019

Micronized Palmitoylethanolamide-Polydatin Reduces the Painful Symptomatology in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2019

The effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on Krüppel-like factor-4 expression, redox homeostasis, and inflammation in the kidney of diabetic rat

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2019

A Review of Cannabis in Chronic Kidney Disease Symptom Management

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

The Association Between Tetrahydrocannabinol and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Utilizing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Involvement of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor in cell growth inhibition and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212–2 in renal cell carcinoma.

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2018

Potential of Endocannabinoids to Control Bladder Pain.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Medical marijuana for urologic chronic pelvic pain.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2018

Impact of cannabidiol treatment on regulatory T-17 cells and neutrophil polarization in acute kidney injury

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2018

Bladder Cancer Cell Growth and Motility Implicate Cannabinoid 2 Receptor-Mediated Modifications of Sphingolipids Metabolism

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2017

Dual therapy targeting the endocannabinoid system prevents experimental diabetic nephropathy.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2017

Obesity-Related CKD: When Kidneys Get the Munchies

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2017

Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitor Treatment in Men With Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: An Adaptive Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2017

The efficacy of an association of palmitoylethanolamide and alpha-lipoic acid in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A randomized clinical trial

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2017

The Therapeutic Aspects of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) for Cancer and their Development: From Nature to Laboratory.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Effects of Tangshen Formula on urinary and plasma liver-type fatty acid binding protein levels in patients with type 2 diabetic kidney disease: post-hoc findings from a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the efficacy and safety of Tangshen Formula in patients with type 2 diabetic kidney disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Impact of teneligliptin on oxidative stress and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic kidney disease: a case-control study

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2016

Association between Plasma Endocannabinoids and Appetite in Hemodialysis Patients: a Pilot Study.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

The endocannabinoid system - a target for the treatment of LUTS?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

New therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Effects of cannabinoid receptor activation by CP55,940 on normal bladder function and irritation-induced bladder overactivity in non-awake anaesthetised rats

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

Association Between Cannabis Use And The Risk Of Bladder Cancer: Results From The California Men's Health

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

Regulation of inflammation and proliferation of human bladder carcinoma cells by type-1 and type-2 cannabinoid receptors

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2015

The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathogenesis and treatment of kidney diseases.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

Renoprotective effects of febuxostat in hyperuricemic patients with chronic kidney disease: a parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2015

Emerging Therapeutic Targets of Sepsis-Associated Acute Kidney Injury.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

Urine Biomarkers and Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury: The Impact of Preoperative Estimated GFR

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

Combination of biomarkers for diagnosis of acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary bypass

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2015

Evaluation of selective cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor agonists in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced interstitial cystitis

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2014

Acute kidney injury after using contrast during cardiac catheterization in children with heart disease

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2014

Cannabinoids and the Endocannabinoid System in Lower Urinary Tract Function and Dysfunction

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2014

TRP channels in lower urinary tract dysfunction

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2014

The Effect of Terpene Combination on Ureter Calculus Expulsion After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2014

β-caryophyllene ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a cannabinoid 2 receptor-dependent manner.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2013

Remote ischemic pre-conditioning alleviates contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with moderate chronic kidney disease

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2013

Terpene compound drug as medical expulsive therapy for ureterolithiasis: a meta-analysis

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2013

Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Blockade Ameliorates Albuminuria in Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2012

Additive renoprotective effects of aliskiren on angiotensin receptor blocker and calcium channel blocker treatments for type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2012

L/N-type calcium channel blocker cilnidipine reduces plasma aldosterone, albuminuria, and urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein in patients with chronic kidney disease

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2012

Combination of two urinary biomarkers predicts acute kidney injury after adult cardiac surgery

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2012

Effects of lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin on kidney function and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic nephropathy

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2011

Is There a Legitimate Role for the Therapeutic Use of Cannabinoids for Symptom Management in Chronic Kidney Disease?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2011

Renovascular protective effects of erythropoietin in patients with chronic kidney disease

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2011

Potential benefit of statin therapy for dyslipidemia with chronic kidney disease: Fluvastatin Renal Evaluation Trial (FRET)

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2011

Biomarkers for early detection of sickle nephropathy

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2011

Addition of aliskiren to olmesartan ameliorates tubular injury in chronic kidney disease patients partly by reducing proteinuria

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2011

Cannabinoids: Potential Targets for Bladder Dysfunction

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2011

Inhibitory effect of standardized cannabis sativa extract and its ingredient cannabidiol on rat and human bladder contractility

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2011

Evaluation of the efficiency of tamsulosin and Rowatinex in patients with distal ureteral stones: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2011

Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Is Downregulated In Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2010

Cannabinoid-2 receptor limits inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress and cell death in nephropathy.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2010

CB1 cannabinoid receptors promote oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and cell death in a murine nephropathy model

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2010

Increased cannabinoid receptor 1-immunoreactive nerve fibers in overactive and painful bladder disorders and their correlation with symptoms

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2010

Cannabidiol Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity by Decreasing Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress, Inflammation, and Cell Death.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2009

Up-regulation of TRPV1 in mononuclear cells of end-stage kidney disease patients increases susceptibility to N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA)-induced cell death

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2009

Effect of Rowatinex on calculus clearance after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2009

Antiproliferative effects of essential oils and their major constituents in human renal adenocarcinoma and amelanotic melanoma cells.

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2008

The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS).

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2006

Cannabis sativa and dystonia secondary to Wilson's disease.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2005

An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2004

A Case of Cannabinoid Rotation in a Young Woman With Chronic Cystitis.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2003

A Preliminary Controlled Study To Determine Whether Whole-plant Cannabis Extracts Can Improve Intractable Neurogenic Symptoms

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2003

Rowatinex for the treatment of ureterolithiasis

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 1992

The value of Rowatinex in the treatment of ureterolithiasis

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 1987

Overview - Urinary System

Description of Urinary System

The urinary system starts anatomically with the kidneys which functions to eliminate waste (e.g. urea, ammonia, excess minerals) and to balance essential and needed compounds (e.g. metabolites, electrolytes, hormones) on a moment to moment basis. Excess materials or waste travels down the ureter into the bladder where it is collected until such time we choose to urinate when urine is voided through the urethra.

Urinary System and ECS-Based Interactions

Endocannabinoid cannabinoid receptor types (CB1, CB2) have been discovered in the kidneys and the lower urinary tract cells of mammals (i.e. monkeys and humans) and it is generally agreed upon that in healthy individuals the ECS plays a significant role in producing kidney homeostasis. To date, the specific mechanisms by which CB1 or CB2 receptors are involved in the pathology of acute kidney injuries (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is subject to ongoing investigation and research has produced interesting results. For instance, while a number of case studies have shown that the usage of synthetic cannabinoids (those commonly found in potent street drugs such as 'spice' or 'K2') have caused AKI in a number of users. Which stands in direct contrast to using plant-based cannabis with no known cases of AKI. In cases of CKD an observational study conducted on 1,225 kidney transplant recipients showed that cannabis use did not increased the risk of death or produced declining kidney function. And, beta-caryophyllene a CB2 activating terpene has shown to be powerful agent in preventing cisplatin-induced (chemotherapeutic agent) kidney toxicity.

Urinary System Medical Specialists

Urologist, Nephrologist

Also Known As:

Renal System

Drug Interactions

THC Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can enhance the effects of drugs that cause sedation and depress the central nervous system, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol. 
  • THC is metabolized by an inhibitor of several enzymatic liver pathways referred to as cytochrome P450 (aka CYP450). There are more than 50 enzymes belonging to this enzyme family, several of which are responsible for the breakdown of common drugs such as antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, doxepin, fluvoxamine), antipsychotics (haloperidol, clozapine, Stelazine), beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol), bronchodilators (e.g., theophylline), or blood thinners (e.g., warfarin). Thus, patients taking these medication classes may find that THC increases the concentration and effects of these drugs and the impact duration.
  • Clinical observation (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggests no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 20mg THC.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with THC, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Cannabidiol (CBD) may alter the action of metabolic enzymes (specific drug-transport mechanisms) and alter interactions with other drugs, some of which may produce therapeutic or adverse effects. For instance, CBD interacts with the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 2C19, increasing the bioavailability of anti-epileptic drugs such as clobazam (a benzodiazepine). This makes it possible to achieve the same results at significantly lower dosages, reducing treatment costs and risks of adverse effects. 
  • Groups of drugs affected include anti-epileptics, psychiatric drugs, and drugs affecting metabolic enzymes.
  • Clinical observations (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggest no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 100mg CBD.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

THC/CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

In general, when using cannabinoid-based therapeutics that contain both THC and CBD consider the ratio between them and weigh the relevant information displayed in the individual THC and CBD Drug Interaction windows accordingly.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with both primary cannabinoids and THC/CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

Concerns about Cannabis and Cancer-related Immunotherapies:
Some recent clinical observational studies have suggested that the co-administration of cannabinoid-based therapeutics and immunotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of certain types of cancer has been associated with worse overall survival rates (T. Taha et al., 2019; A. Biedny et al., 2020; G. Bar-Sela et al., 2020).

However, other studies have suggested that the co-commitment use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and cannabis-induced no such deleterious effects. More specifically, one trial was conducted on animals resulting in data suggesting that cannabis did not negatively affect the properties of immune checkpoint inhibitors (B. Waissengrin et al., 2023). The same authors compared the previous study results with findings from a cohort of 201 patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who received treatment with monotherapy pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment and adjunct cannabis to treat mainly pain and loss of appetite. Their time to tumor progression was 6.1 versus 5.6 months, and overall survival differed between 54.9 versus 23.6 months in cannabis-naïve patients and cannabis-using patients, respectively. However, while numerically different, the authors write that these differences were not statistically significant, leading them to suggest that “These data provide reassurance regarding the absence of a deleterious effect of cannabis in this clinical setting.”

Dosing Considerations

THC Dosage Considerations

  • THC micro dose:  0.1 mg to 0.4 mg
  • THC low dose:  0.5 mg to 5 mg
  • THC medium dose:  6 mg to 20 mg
  • THC high dose:  21 mg to 50+ mg

CBD Dosage Considerations

  • CBD low dose:  0.4 mg to 19 mg
  • CBD medium dose: 20 mg to 99 mg
  • CBD high dose:  100 mg to 800+ mg (upper limits tested ~1,500mg)

Disclaimer
Information on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own licensed physician or other medical professional. You should not use the information contained herein for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. If using a product, you should read carefully all product packaging. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider.

Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.