Cannabis Adverse Effects – Cannabis THC : CBD Ratios

Cannabis Adverse Effects Research Dashboard

139

Primary Studies

107

Related Studies

246

Total Studies

Clinical Studies

5

Clinical Meta-analyses

14

Double-blind human trials

14

Clinical human trials

Pre-Clinical Studies

81

Meta-analyses/Reviews

20

Animal studies

3

Laboratory studies

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CannaKeys has 246 studies associated with Cannabis Adverse Effects.

Here is a small sampling of Cannabis Adverse Effects studies by title:


Components of the Cannabis Adverse Effects Research Dashboard

  • Dosing information available for Cannabis Adverse Effects
  • Chemotype guidance for treating Cannabis Adverse Effects with cannabis
  • Synopsis of cannabis research for Cannabis Adverse Effects
  • Individual study details for Cannabis Adverse Effects

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Overview - Cannabis Adverse Effects

Description of Cannabis Adverse Effects

Most cannabis induced adverse effects are THC-dose dependent and usually self-limiting. Mental-emotional adverse effect from plant-based cannabinoids may include changes in cognition ("feeling high"), memory (short-term and long-term), and mood (dysphoria may include depression, paranoia, panic attack), and a lack of motivation (e.g. couch lock). They include the potential for psychological bias toward cannabis use and psychological withdrawal symptoms may include "weird dreams," difficulty sleeping, a sense of irritability (e.g. anger), and a lack of appetite for example. Physiologically adverse effects may also include dry mucus membranes (e.g. mouth, eyes), food cravings (munchies), temporary postural dizziness, a slight increase in heart rate (often a compensatory mechanism due to a slight drop in cannabis-induced blood pressure), patients smoking cigarettes (especially when mixed with tobacco) may experience lung irritation effects.

Disease Classification

Condition: Cannabis Adverse Effects
Disease Family: Toxic Exposure
Organ System: Nervous System, Mental/Emotional System, Digestive System
ICD-10 Chapter: Mental and Behavioral Disorders
ICD-10 Code: T40.7

Cannabis Adverse Effects Symptoms:

Unwanted/unpleasant changes in cognition (feeling "high," hallucination, mismatching sensory experiences), dry mucus membranes, food cravings, anxiety, panic attack, mild hypotension, increased heart rate, dose-dependent atypical symptoms include (nausea, vomiting, pain), dizziness, disorientation, light-headedness, expressive aphasia

Also known as:

Poisoning by cannabis, Under-dosing of cannabis

Drug Interactions

THC Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • THC can enhance the effects of drugs that cause sedation and depress the central nervous system, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol, for example. 
  • THC is metabolized by and an inhibitor of a number of enzymatic liver pathways referred to as cytochrome P450. There are more than 50 enzymes belonging to this enzyme family, a number of which are responsible for the breakdown of common drugs such as antidepressants (e.g. amitriptyline, doxepine, fluvoxamine), antipsychotics (haloperidol, clozapine, stelazine), beta-blockers (e.g. propranolol), bronchodilators (e.g. theophylline), or bloodthinners (e.g. warfarin).  Thus patients taking these classes of medication may find that THC increases the concentration and effects of these drugs as well as the duration of their effects.
  • Clinical observation suggests no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 20mg THC.

CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • CBD may alter action on metabolic enzymes (certain drug-transport mechanisms), and as such may alter interactions with other drugs, some of which may produce therapeutic or adverse effects. For instance, CBD interacts with the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 2C19, increasing the bioavailability of anti-epileptic drugs such as clobazam (a benzodiazepine). This makes it possible to achieve the same results at significantly lower dosages, reducing treatment costs and risks of adverse effects. 
  • Groups of drugs affected include: anti-epileptic drugs, psychiatric drugs, and drugs affecting metabolic enzymes, for example.
  • Clinical observations suggest no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 100mg CBD

Dosing Considerations

THC Dosage Considerations

  • THC micro dose:  0.1 mg to 0.4 mg (0.001mg/kg to 0.005mg/kg)
  • THC low dose:  0.5 mg to 5 mg (0.006mg/kg to 0.06mg/kg)
  • THC medium dose:  6 mg to 20 mg (0.08mg/kg to 0.27mg/kg)
  • THC high dose:  21 mg to 50+ mg (0.28mg/kg to 0.67mg/kg)
Formula for converting a set dose into mg/kg considerations: mg ÷ kg = mg/kg
(sample conversion calculated on a person weighing 75kg)

CBD Dosage Considerations

  • CBD low dose:  0.4 mg to 19 mg (0.005mg/kg to 0.25mg/kg)
  • CBD medium dose: 20 mg to 99 mg (0.26mg/kg to 1.32mg/kg)
  • CBD high dose:  100 mg to 800+ mg (1.33mg/kg to 10.7mg/kg)
  • (upper limits tested ~1,500mg)
Formula for converting a set dose into mg/kg considerations: mg ÷ kg = mg/kg
(sample conversion calculated on a person weighing 75kg)
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Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.