Description of Corona Viral Diseases
Coronaviruses are a family of hundreds of viruses that typically cause symptoms not unlike the common cold or flu. Until very recently and unlike the cold or flu corona viral infections affected only a relatively small numbers of people. All of that changed in the year 2002 with the emergence of first epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in southern China. By the time this epidemic was done the CDC reports ~8,000 patients had been infected in total with a ~10% mortality rate (no new cases since 2004). Humanities next brush with a member of the corona viral family came ten years later. This time originating in Saudi Arabia (2012) causing Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) with approximately 2,500 confirmed cases and a fatal rate of ~35% (MERS-CoV is still active). Fast forwarding to the next outbreak brings us to 2019 when news of a novel and mysterious respiratory illness reaches us from Wuhan, China. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the strain of coronavirus that caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To the surprise and shock the global population this outbreak grew rapidly from an epidemic to a global pandemic. By December, 2020 the global count of corona virus cases was estimated to have surpassed 67 million people with an estimated 1.5 million fatalities (~2.2%). Corona viruses can be transmitted by zoonotic means that is they can be transmitted between animals and humans. The vectors for transmission are posited to be bats (considered primary viral reservoirs), camel (or dromedary), with other animals (e.g. masked palm civets ) acting as possible intermediaries. Patients who contract COVID-19 do not all get sick in the same way or with the same intensity of symptoms, which range from mild, moderate, or severe to fatal, depending on the resilience or constitution of the affected person. The CDC suggest that—based on the, better-understood member of the corona viral family, i.e., the 2012 appearance of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus, MERS-CoV—symptoms are likely to appear between 2 and 14 days after exposure (typically via airborne droplets). This estimate was fine-tuned by the most recent study from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (2020) which discovered that the median incubation period for COVID-19 of was approximately 5 days.
Certain Infectious and Parasitical Diseases
ICD-10 Code: U07.1
Corona Viral Diseases Symptoms:
Symptoms, can range from mild, moderate, or severe to fatal, depending on the resilience or constitution of the affected person. According to the CDC, the most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists as most common symptoms (in descending order): fever, weakness (tiredness, fatigue), dry cough. The WHO also lists less commonly reported symptoms such as shortness of breath, aches and pains (i.e., bone, joint, muscle pains, headaches), sore throat, with a minority of patients reporting nasal congestion, nausea, and diarrhea.
Also known as:
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Coronoa Virus, SARS, MERS