Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders – Cannabis Research

Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders Research Dashboard

63

Primary Studies

41

Related Studies

104

Total Studies

Clinical Studies

1

Clinical Meta-analyses

9

Double-blind human trials

6

Clinical human trials

Pre-Clinical Studies

38

Meta-analyses/Reviews

8

Animal studies

1

Laboratory studies

State of the Science

Clinical Guidance:
FDA Approval:
EU Approval:
Overall Positive Results: 73%
Positive Clinical Results: 69%

Studies by Country of Researcher

No data to display

Studies by Chemotype (THC:CBD Ratio)

No data to display

Clinical Dosing Summary

Data available for 9 studies.

Constituents with Clinical Evidence for Treating Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders

ECS with Positive Clinical Studies

Synopsis of Cannabis Research for Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Over the past ten years, the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in cases of autism and pervasive developmental disorders has been directly examined by several published pre-clinical and clinical trials.


Data reveals that:



  • Blood levels of endocannabinoids such as anandamide (AEA) are lower in children with autism

  • ECS-based modulation of the monoaminergic system and oxytocin systems might offer novel approaches to treatment

  • ECS-based modulation of neuroinflammation, neurogenesis and cognitive function (e.g., memory) suggests a potential therapeutic role.

  • Cannabis-based therapeutics appear to be well-tolerated, safe, and effective options to relieve symptoms associated with the condition.

  • Oral CBD was mainly able to reduce multiple symptoms such as self-injury, or sleep, thus improving the quality of life for hyperactivity, the caretakers, and the patients.


Last reviewed by Dr. Abraham Benavides, M.D., 12/28/2022

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63 PRIMARY STUDIES | 104 TOTAL STUDIES

Cannabinoid treatment for the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2024

Autism and associated disorders: cannabis as a potential therapy

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Medicinal cannabis in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A scoping review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Clinical Data on Canabinoids: Translational Research in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Cannabidiol for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: hope or hype?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

The Autism–Psychosis Continuum Conundrum: Exploring the Role of the Endocannabinoid System

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Cannabis Use in Autism: Reasons for Concern about Risk for Psychosis

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Cannabinoid Treatment for Disruptive Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects on Sleep Parameters as Measured by the CSHQ

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2022

Children and adolescents with ASD treated with CBD-rich cannabis exhibit significant improvements particularly in social symptoms: an open label study

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2022

Deficiency of autism-related Scn2a gene in mice disrupts sleep patterns and circadian rhythms

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

Implications of the endocannabinoid system and the therapeutic action of cannabinoids in autism spectrum disorder: A literature review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Terpene-Enriched CBD oil for treating autism-derived symptoms unresponsive to pure CBD: Case report

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Clinical outcome analysis of patients with autism spectrum disorder: analysis from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Cannabidiol in Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Cannabinoid treatment for autism: a proof-of-concept randomized trial

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2021

Healing autism spectrum disorder with cannabinoids: a neuroinflammatory story

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Potential of cannabinoids as treatments for autism spectrum disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Pharmacological inhibition of the primary endocannabinoid producing enzyme, DGL-α, induces autism spectrum disorder-like and co-morbid phenotypes in adult C57BL/J mice

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Alterations of the endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic potential in autism spectrum disorder

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabis and cannabinoid use in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Symptoms, adverse events, and outcomes in the use of medicinal cannabis in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: a scoping review protocol

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

CBD-enriched cannabis for autism spectrum disorder: an experience of a single center in Turkey and reviews of the literature

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2021

Brief Report: Suspected Cannabis-Induced Mania and Psychosis in Young Adult Males with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Endocannabinoid markers in autism spectrum disorder: A scoping review of human studies

Type of Study: Clinical Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Recent Updates in Psychopharmacology for the Core and Associated Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Safety and Efficacy of Medical Cannabis in Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared with Commonly Used Medications

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Therapeutic potential of cannabidivarin for epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Modulation of striatal functional connectivity differences in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder in a single-dose randomized trial of cannabidivarin

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2021

The Potential of Salivary Lipid-Based Cannabis-Responsive Biomarkers to Evaluate Medical Cannabis Treatment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2021

Palmitoylethanolamide and Its Biobehavioral Correlates in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of Human and Animal Evidence

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Peri-Pregnancy Cannabis Use and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Offspring: Findings from the Study to Explore Early Development

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabis and cannabidiol use among autistic and non-autistic adults in the UK: a propensity score-matched analysis

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Perinatal Cannabis Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Behavioral aspects and neurobiological properties underlying medical cannabis treatment in Shank3 mouse model of autism spectrum disorder

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabinoids for People with ASD: A Systematic Review of Published and Ongoing Studies

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

A pediatric patient with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy using cannabinoid extracts as complementary therapy: a case report

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol-rich cannabis extract in children with autism spectrum disorder: randomized, double-blind and controlled placebo clinical trial

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2020

Safety and Efficacy of Cannabis in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Brief Report: Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Severe Behavioral Problems-A Retrospective Feasibility Study

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2019

Cannabis use is associated with potentially heritable widespread changes in autism candidate gene DLGAP2 DNA methylation in sperm

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2019

The effect of cannabidiol (CBD) on low-frequency activity and functional connectivity in the brain of adults with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2019

Effects of cannabidiol on brain excitation and inhibition systems; a randomised placebo-controlled single dose trial during magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2019

Effects of CBD-Enriched Cannabis sativa Extract on Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms: An Observational Study of 18 Participants Undergoing Compassionate Use

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2019

Oral Cannabidiol Use in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Treat Related Symptoms and Co-morbidities

Type of Study: Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2019

Cannabidiol as a suggested candidate for treatment of autism spectrum disorder

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Endocannabinoid System Dysregulation from Acetaminophen Use May Lead to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Could Cannabinoid Treatment Be Efficacious?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Is Cannabidiol During Neurodevelopment a Promising Therapy for Schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Effects of cannabidivarin (CBDV) on brain excitation and inhibition systems in adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): a single dose trial during magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2019

The Endocannabinoid System as a Window Into Microglial Biology and Its Relationship to Autism

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Lower circulating endocannabinoid levels in children with autism spectrum disorder

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Plasma anandamide concentrations are lower in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Role of the endocannabinoid system in neurological disorders.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Real life Experience of Medical Cannabis Treatment in Autism: Analysis of Safety and Efficacy.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Palmitoylethanolamide as adjunctive therapy for autism: Efficacy and safety results from a randomized controlled trial

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2018

Palmitoylethanolamide counteracts autistic-like behaviours in BTBR T+tf/J mice: Contribution of central and peripheral mechanisms

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2018

Endocannabinod Signal Dysregulation In Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Correlation Link Between Inflammatory State And Neuro-Immune Alterations

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2017

Role of Endocannabinoids on Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevention.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2017

Targeting anandamide metabolism rescues core and associated autistic-like symptoms in rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

Enhancement of Anandamide-Mediated Endocannabinoid Signaling Corrects Autism-Related Social Impairment

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

Beneficial Effects of Co-Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide/Luteolin in a Mouse Model of Autism and in a Case Report of Autism

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Gluten and casein supplementation does not increase symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2014

Would some cannabinoids ameliorate symptoms of autism?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2012

Consequences Of Cannabinoid And Monoaminergic System Disruption In A Mouse Model Of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2011

41 RELATED STUDIES | 104 TOTAL STUDIES

The use of cannabidiol as a novel treatment for oral stereotypic behaviour (crib-biting) in a horse

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2023

The Effects of Peripubertal THC Exposure in Neurodevelopmental Rat Models of Psychopathology

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2023

A systematic review of cannabidiol trials in neurodevelopmental disorders

Type of Study: Clinical Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2023

Medical Cannabis Received by Patients According to Qualifying Condition in a US State Cannabis Program: Product Choice, Dosing, and Age-Related Trends

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2023

Cannabidiol Increases Seizure Resistance and Improves Behavior in an Scn8a Mouse Model

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

A Review on the Bioactivity of Cannabinoids on Zebrafish Models: Emphasis on Neurodevelopment

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Impact of cannabinoids on pregnancy, reproductive health and offspring outcomes

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

The Effects of Cannabidiol and δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Social Cognition: A Naturalistic Controlled Study

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2022

Oxytocin acts centrally in the brain to improve leaky gut through the vagus nerve and a cannabinoid signaling in rats

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

A randomized, controlled trial of ZYN002 cannabidiol transdermal gel in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (CONNECT-FX)

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2022

Treatment of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in a Mouse Model by Cannabidiol, an Angiogenesis Pathway Inhibitor

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

Adjuvant palmitoylethanolamide therapy with risperidone improves negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2022

Immunomodulatory Role of CB2 Receptors in Emotional and Cognitive Disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Unexpected improvement of hyperhidrosis with cannabidiol

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Herbal Approaches to Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

The Role of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

A pilot randomised placebo-controlled trial of cannabidiol to reduce severe behavioural problems in children and adolescents with intellectual disability

Type of Study: Double Blind Human Trial

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabinoid control of hippocampal functions: the where matters

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabis exposure during adolescence: A uniquely sensitive period for neurobiological effects

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Quality of Life and a Surveillant Endocannabinoid System

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Case Report: Lennox-Gastaut Epileptic Encephalopathy Responsive to Cannabidiol Treatment Associated With a Novel de novo Mosaic SHANK1 Variant

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabidiol and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Potential therapeutic uses of cannabinoids to treat behavioural problems in children and adolescents with developmental disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabidiol Exposure During the Mouse Adolescent Period Is Without Harmful Behavioral Effects on Locomotor Activity, Anxiety, and Spatial Memory

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2021

A Mapping Literature Review of Medical Cannabis Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Evidence in Approved Conditions in the USA from 2016 to 2019

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Phytocannabinoids in Neurological Diseases: Could They Restore a Physiological GABAergic Transmission?

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Cannabis sativa: Much more beyond Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Palmitoylethanolamide: A Nutritional Approach to Keep Neuroinflammation within Physiological Boundaries—A Systematic Review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

The endocannabinoidome as a substrate for noneuphoric phytocannabinoid action and gut microbiome dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders


Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Cannabis Exposure During Critical Windows of Development: Epigenetic and Molecular Pathways Implicated in Neuropsychiatric Disease

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Medicinal Use of Cannabis in Children and Pregnant Women

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Drug-Drug Interactions Between Cannabidiol and Lithium

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Priority Considerations for Medicinal Cannabis-Related Research

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Endocannabinoid system in the neurodevelopment of GABAergic interneurons: implications for neurological and psychiatric disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

The Potential Benefits of Palmitoylethanolamide in Palliation: A Qualitative Systematic Review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Innovative Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoid Receptors as Targets in Alzheimer's disease and Less Well-Known Diseases.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2018

Chronic treatment with the phytocannabinoid Cannabidivarin (CBDV) rescues behavioural alterations and brain atrophy in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2018

Cannabidiol Attenuates Seizures And Social Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Dravet Syndrome

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2017

Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase attenuates social behavioural deficits in male rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2016

β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties.

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2016

Endocannabinoid Signaling Mediates Oxytocin-driven Social Reward

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2015

Overview - Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Description of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Thirty years ago, few people had ever heard the word autism. Circa 1975, only one in 5,000 children was diagnosed with this condition. Nowadays, it is a household word, and almost everybody knows of someone suffering from the disease.


The allopathic community considers autism a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins early in childhood. Government statistics suggest that the prevalence rate of autism is increasing by 10-17% annually, doubling roughly every five years since 1980.


The facts are starkly clear: the pervasiveness of autism is growing exponentially. If current trends continue and no cure is found, we could look at a future reality where, by 2047, one in two people will be diagnosed as autistic.


Pharmaceutical medications (such as Ritalin, an amphetamine-like drug) are given to millions of children annually to control symptoms.

Disease Classification

Condition: Autism
Disease Family: Mental Disorders
Organ System: Mental/Emotional System, Nervous System
ICD-10 Chapter: Mental and Behavioural Disorders
ICD-10 Code: F84

Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders Symptoms:

Symptoms of autism fall on a spectrum range between the following: the autism savant, atypical social interaction, atypical communicating, atypical interests, compulsive behavior, destructive behavior

Also known as:

ASD, Infantile Autism, Childhood-onset autism, autistic disorder, autism disorder, autism spectrum disorder, infantile autism, Asperger's Syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, developmental disorder, autistic disorder of childhood onset, Kanner syndrome, Kanner's syndrome, low functioning autism, high functioning autism, autism with speech disturbances or language delay, residual state autism disorder, SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability, SYNGAP1, specific developmental disorders of speech and language

Drug Interactions

THC Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can enhance the effects of drugs that cause sedation and depress the central nervous system, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol. 
  • THC is metabolized by an inhibitor of several enzymatic liver pathways referred to as cytochrome P450 (aka CYP450). There are more than 50 enzymes belonging to this enzyme family, several of which are responsible for the breakdown of common drugs such as antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, doxepin, fluvoxamine), antipsychotics (haloperidol, clozapine, Stelazine), beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol), bronchodilators (e.g., theophylline), or blood thinners (e.g., warfarin). Thus, patients taking these medication classes may find that THC increases the concentration and effects of these drugs and the impact duration.
  • Clinical observation (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggests no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 20mg THC.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with THC, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Cannabidiol (CBD) may alter the action of metabolic enzymes (specific drug-transport mechanisms) and alter interactions with other drugs, some of which may produce therapeutic or adverse effects. For instance, CBD interacts with the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 2C19, increasing the bioavailability of anti-epileptic drugs such as clobazam (a benzodiazepine). This makes it possible to achieve the same results at significantly lower dosages, reducing treatment costs and risks of adverse effects. 
  • Groups of drugs affected include anti-epileptics, psychiatric drugs, and drugs affecting metabolic enzymes.
  • Clinical observations (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggest no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 100mg CBD.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

THC/CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

In general, when using cannabinoid-based therapeutics that contain both THC and CBD consider the ratio between them and weigh the relevant information displayed in the individual THC and CBD Drug Interaction windows accordingly.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with both primary cannabinoids and THC/CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

Concerns about Cannabis and Cancer-related Immunotherapies:
Some recent clinical observational studies have suggested that the co-administration of cannabinoid-based therapeutics and immunotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of certain types of cancer has been associated with worse overall survival rates (T. Taha et al., 2019; A. Biedny et al., 2020; G. Bar-Sela et al., 2020).

However, other studies have suggested that the co-commitment use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and cannabis-induced no such deleterious effects. More specifically, one trial was conducted on animals resulting in data suggesting that cannabis did not negatively affect the properties of immune checkpoint inhibitors (B. Waissengrin et al., 2023). The same authors compared the previous study results with findings from a cohort of 201 patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who received treatment with monotherapy pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment and adjunct cannabis to treat mainly pain and loss of appetite. Their time to tumor progression was 6.1 versus 5.6 months, and overall survival differed between 54.9 versus 23.6 months in cannabis-naïve patients and cannabis-using patients, respectively. However, while numerically different, the authors write that these differences were not statistically significant, leading them to suggest that “These data provide reassurance regarding the absence of a deleterious effect of cannabis in this clinical setting.”

Dosing Considerations

THC Dosage Considerations

  • THC micro dose:  0.1 mg to 0.4 mg
  • THC low dose:  0.5 mg to 5 mg
  • THC medium dose:  6 mg to 20 mg
  • THC high dose:  21 mg to 50+ mg

CBD Dosage Considerations

  • CBD low dose:  0.4 mg to 19 mg
  • CBD medium dose: 20 mg to 99 mg
  • CBD high dose:  100 mg to 800+ mg (upper limits tested ~1,500mg)
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Disclaimer
Information on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own licensed physician or other medical professional. You should not use the information contained herein for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. If using a product, you should read carefully all product packaging. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider.

Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.