Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) Cannabinoid Research

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) Research Dashboard

48

Primary Studies

34

Related Studies

82

Total Studies

Clinical Studies

2

Clinical Meta-analyses

6

Double-blind Clinical Trials

2

Clinical Trials

Pre-Clinical Studies

11

Meta-analyses/Reviews

11

Animal Studies

16

Laboratory Studies

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48 PRIMARY STUDIES | 82 TOTAL STUDIES

Cross-substance primed and cue-induced craving among alcohol and cannabis co-users: An experimental psychopharmacology approach

Type of Study: Clinical Trial

Year of Pub: 2023

Effects of cannabinoids on resting state functional brain connectivity: A systematic review

Type of Study: Clinical Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2023

Molecular pathway and structural mechanism of human oncochannel TRPV6 inhibition by the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabivarin

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2023

Urinary Excretion Profile of Cannabinoid Analytes Following Acute Administration of Oral and Vaporized Cannabis in Infrequent Cannabis Users

Type of Study: Double Blind Clinical Trial

Year of Pub: 2022

Role of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in rodents

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2022

Cannabis use as a factor of lower corpulence in hepatitis C-infected patients: results from the ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Effects of Rare Phytocannabinoids on the Endocannabinoid System of Human Keratinocytes

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2022

A Systematic Review of Medical Cannabinoids Dosing in Human

Type of Study: Clinical Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Phytocannabinoids and Cannabis-Based Products as Alternative Pharmacotherapy in Neurodegenerative Diseases: From Hypothesis to Clinical Practice

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Phytocannabinoids—A Green Approach toward Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Treatment

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Biomarkers of Recent Cannabis Use in Blood, Oral Fluid and Breath

Type of Study: Double Blind Clinical Trial

Year of Pub: 2021

Detectability of cannabinoids in the serum samples of cannabis users: Indicators of recent cannabis use? A follow-up study

Type of Study: Clinical Trial

Year of Pub: 2021

The plant cannabinoid Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin can decrease signs of inflammation and inflammatory pain in mice

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Specific Compositions of Cannabis sativa Compounds Have Cytotoxic Activity and Inhibit Motility and Colony Formation of Human Glioblastoma Cells In Vitro

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Efficacy and safety of medical cannabinoids in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of phytocannabinoids in oily based preparations

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabis sativa as a Treatment for Obesity: From Anti-Inflammatory Indirect Support to a Promising Metabolic Re-Establishment Target

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Identification and quantification of cannabinoids in postmortem fluids and tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

The Cannabinoids Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabinol, Cannabidiol, Tetrahydrocannabivarin, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9-THC in Hair

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Screening and confirmation methods for the qualitative identification of nine phytocannabinoids in urine by LC-MS/MS

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

An Evaluation of Understudied Phytocannabinoids and Their Effects in Two Neuronal Models

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to detect cannabinoids in whole blood and breath

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV): a commentary on potential therapeutic benefit for the management of obesity and diabetes

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of two standardized extracts from a new Chinese accession of non-psychotropic Cannabis sativa L

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Beneficial effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ 9-THCV in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Cannabinoids and Chronic Liver Diseases

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Synthesis of the Major Mammalian Metabolites of THCV

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

High fat-fed GPR55 null mice display impaired glucose tolerance without concomitant changes in energy balance or insulin sensitivity but are less responsive to the effects of the cannabinoids rimonabant or Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin on weight gain

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Potential of Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands as Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin on [35S]GTPgammaS binding in mouse brain cerebellum and piriform cortex membranes

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2019

Δ8 -Tetrahydrocannabivarin has potent anti-nicotine effects in several rodent models of nicotine dependence

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2019

Effects of non‐euphoric plant cannabinoids on muscle quality and performance of dystrophic mdx mice

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2018

The effect of five day dosing with THCV on THC-induced cognitive, psychological and physiological effects in healthy male human volunteers: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot trial

Type of Study: Double Blind Clinical Trial

Year of Pub: 2016

The CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin Reduces Default Mode Network and Increases Executive Control Network Resting State Functional Connectivity in Healthy Volunteers

Type of Study: Double Blind Clinical Trial

Year of Pub: 2016

Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study.

Type of Study: Double Blind Clinical Trial

Year of Pub: 2016

The phytocannabinoid, Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin, can act through 5-HT₁A receptors to produce antipsychotic effects

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2015

Neural effects of cannabinoid CB1 neutral antagonist tetrahydrocannabivarin on food reward and aversion in healthy volunteers

Type of Study: Double Blind Clinical Trial

Year of Pub: 2015

Are cannabidiol and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin negative modulators of the endocannabinoid system? A systematic review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2015

Evaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2013

Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2013

The cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) ameliorates insulin sensitivity in two mouse models of obesity.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2013

Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabivarin Prevents Hepatic Ischaemia/Reperfusion Injury by Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses Through Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2012

Symptom-relieving and neuroprotective effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THCV in animal models of Parkinson's disease

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2011

Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2009

The phytocannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin modulates inhibitory neurotransmission in the cerebellum

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2008

The psychoactive plant cannabinoid, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is antagonized by Delta8- and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin in mice in vivo

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2007

Cannabivarin and Tetrahydrocannabivarin, Two New Constituents of Hashish

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 1969

34 RELATED STUDIES | 82 TOTAL STUDIES

Cannabis-Based Products for the Treatment of Skin Inflammatory Diseases: A Timely Review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Cannabis sativa Extract Induces Apoptosis in Human Pancreatic 3D Cancer Models: Importance of Major Antioxidant Molecules Present Therein

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2022

The Medicinal Natural Products of Cannabis sativa Linn.: A Review

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Profiling Cannabinoid Contents and Expression Levels of Corresponding Biosynthetic Genes in Commercial Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2022

Sebaceous immunobiology - skin homeostasis, pathophysiology, coordination of innate immunity and inflammatory response and disease associations

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Cannabis for Medical Use: Versatile Plant Rather Than a Single Drug

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

A Review on the Bioactivity of Cannabinoids on Zebrafish Models: Emphasis on Neurodevelopment

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Cannabis Use and the Endocannabinoid System: A Clinical Perspective

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

Raising awareness: The implementation of medical cannabis and psychedelics used as an adjunct to standard therapy in the treatment of advanced metastatic breast cancer

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2022

In vitro percutaneous absorption studies of cannabidiol using human skin: Exploring the effect of drug concentration, chemical enhancers, and essential oils

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2022

Quantitation of Δ8-THC, Δ9-THC, Cannabidiol, and Ten Other Cannabinoids and Metabolites in Oral Fluid by HPLC-MS/MS

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Differential Interactions of Selected Phytocannabinoids with Human CYP2D6 Polymorphisms

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Development and Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Extraction Setup Leading to Quantification of 11 Cannabinoids Derived from Medicinal Cannabis

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Identification of Chemotypic Markers in Three Chemotype Categories of Cannabis Using Secondary Metabolites Profiled in Inflorescences, Leaves, Stem Bark, and Roots

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Terpenoids Commonly Found in Cannabis sativa Do Not Modulate the Actions of Phytocannabinoids or Endocannabinoids on TRPA1 and TRPV1 Channels

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabis compounds exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in COVID-19-related inflammation in lung epithelial cells and pro-inflammatory activity in macrophages

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

Cannabis sativa: Interdisciplinary Strategies and Avenues for Medical and Commercial Progression Outside of CBD and THC

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

Protective Effects of Cannabidivarin and Cannabigerol on Cells of the Blood–Brain Barrier Under Ischemic Conditions

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2021

The Current and Potential Application of Medicinal Cannabis Products in Dentistry

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2021

In vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of minor cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Cannabinoids and Cannabinoid Receptors: The Story so Far

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

It Is Our Turn to Get Cannabis High: Put Cannabinoids in Food and Health Baskets

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2020

Phytocannabinoids promote viability and functional adipogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells through different molecular targets

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2020

Future Aspects for Cannabinoids in Breast Cancer Therapy

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Simultaneous Quantification of 13 Cannabinoids and Metabolites in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Adult Epilepsy Patients

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Potential Mechanisms Influencing the Inverse Relationship Between Cannabis and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Commentary

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the “C(ut)annabinoid” System

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Lifestyle and Metabolic Syndrome: Contribution of the Endocannabinoidome

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2019

Molecular Targets of the Phytocannabinoids-A Complex Picture

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2017

Free and Glucuronide Whole Blood Cannabinoids' Pharmacokinetics after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users: Identification of Recent Cannabis Intake

Type of Study: Double Blind Clinical Trial

Year of Pub: 2016

Non-THC Cannabinoids Inhibit Prostate Carcinoma Growth In Vitro And In Vivo: Pro-apoptotic Effects And Underlying Mechanisms

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2013

Modulation of l-α-Lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Signaling by Cannabinoids

Type of Study: Laboratory Study

Year of Pub: 2012

Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour.

Type of Study: Animal Study

Year of Pub: 2012

The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin

Type of Study: Meta-analysis

Year of Pub: 2008

Overview - Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)

Description of Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)

Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ-9-THCV) was discovered in 1969 (F. Merkus 1971).


THCV belongs to the THC group but produces significantly different effects than THC. This difference in effect is largely due to their different effects at CB1. THC is an agonist at CB1, while THCV is an antagonist at the same receptor and, as such, induces opposing effects. For instance, while THC can induce euphoria, THCV can produce dysphoria. THC increases appetite ("the munchies"), while THCV decreases the desire for food.


A lot of attention has been given to THCV of late due to the observation that it may be able to induce several therapeutic effects in patients challenged by metabolic syndrome, obesity, and diabetes. This is especially true in the context of the failed approach with Rimonabant (a full CB1 antagonist with a Ki of ~2nM) used extensively to induce weight loss but pulled from the EU market due to associated mood disorders, including suicidal ideations.


Δ(8) -THCV (is a synthetic analog of the plant cannabinoid Δ(9) -THCV.


Here we focus primarily on Δ-9-THCV.

Other Names:

Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin

THCV, THC-V, Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin, Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin, plus numerous other supplier-based synonyms.


IUPAC Name: (6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-propyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol


Molecular Formula: C19H26O2


Source–PubChem

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) Properties and Effects

Δ-9-THCV may induce the following properties and effects: 



  1. Analgesia 

    1. Inflammatory pain (reduction) (D. Bolognini et al., 2010)

    2. Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (reduction) (A. Kavala et al., 2022



  2. Anti-addictive (cannabis) (E. Galaj et al., 2019)

  3. Anti-addictive (opioids) (E. Galaj et al., 2019)

  4. Anti-diabetic

    1. Adiponectin (improved function of this natural hormone that helps to regulate glucose levels) (K. Jadoon et al., 2016)

    2. Insulin sensitivity (improved) (E. Wargent et al., 2013)

    3. Glucose levels (decrease plasma glucose concentrations) (K. Jadoon et al., 2016)

    4. Pancreatic beta-cell (improved function) (K. Jadoon et al., 2016)



  5. Anti-cancer (A. Neuberger et al., 2023)

  6. Anti-dyskinesia (Δ-9-THCV reduced L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia) (I. Espadas et al., 2020)

  7. Anti-epileptic (A. Hill et al., 2010)

  8. Anti-nausea (E. Rock et al., 2013)

  9. Anti-obesity (E. Wargent et al., 2013)

  10. Antioxidant (C. Garcia et al., 2011)

  11. Anti-psychotic (potentially beneficial effects via serotonin receptor site activation) (M. Cascio et al., 2015)

  12. Appetite-suppressant (A. Abioye et al., 2020)

  13. Dysphoric (full antagonists at CB1 have been shown to induce dysphoric effects-see SR-141716A) (R. Christensen et al., 2007F. Akbas et al., 2009)

  14. Neuroprotective (C. Garcia et al., 2011)

  15. Antimicrobial (i.e., effective against MRSA)


Δ-8-THCV may:



  1. Anti-addictive (nicotine) (Z. Xi. et al., 2019)


Adverse Effects of THCV:


Clinical data regarding the potential adverse effects of CBN remains wanting. However, since THCV is a full antagonist at CB1, some researchers remain concerned about possible dysphoric effects.


 

Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) Receptor Binding

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) and THCV: 


  1. CB1 antagonist with a mean Ki of ~84nM using data from 5 trials (J. McPartland et al., 2015); in contrast, Rimonabant (aka SR-141716A) is a full CB1 antagonist with a Ki of ~2nM (M. Rinaldi-Carmona et al., 1994).

  2. THCV is an inhibitor of CB1 agonists (e.g., reduced THC-associated increases in heart rate, decrease in THC-associated psychoactivity) while increasing others, i.e., significantly increased memory intrusions

  3. CB2 agonist with a mean Ki of ~125nM using data from 3 trials (J. McPartland et al., 2015)


Endocannabinoidome (eCBome) and THCV: 


  1. GPR-55 (Mixed results, THCV acted as an agonist/antagonist (E. Wargent et al., 2020)

  2. TRPV6 (potential inhibitor) (A. Neuberger et al., 2023)

  3. Serotonin receptor sites

    1. 5-HT1A (may act as a positive allosteric modulator) (M. Cascio et al., 2015)






Ki legend:



  • Full/strong agonist Ki ~1-9nM

  • Moderate agonist Ki ~10-99nM

  • Weak agonist Ki ~100-999nM

  • Very weak agonist Ki ~1,000-up nM


(The reader is reminded that a smaller Ki is associated with the strongest effects.)

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