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Here is a small sampling of Pinene studies by title:
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Pinene is the single terpene that stands out from the crowd with its sheer abundance in the fauna and flora of nature i.e., α-pinene and β-pinene
Pinene is the most widely and commonly encountered terpene in nature. The terpene produces the pine-like, woody scent in numerous plants and trees of great variety and from very different geographical regions.
Rowantinex is an over-the-counter terpene formula high in pinene, camphene, and borneol.
Is Pinene safe?
Isolated pinene is a colorless to pale yellow liquid that may cause irritation to eyes, skin, gut, and mucous membranes and be fatal if inhaled, aspirated, or ingested. In addition, it may cause severe CNS depression, altered mental status, and kidney damage in large, concentrated quantities, such as in occupational settings.
IUPAC Name (α-pinene): 2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene
IUPAC Name (β-pinene): 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane
Pine, herbal, woody, turpentine
Rosemary, pine, cedar, redwood, conifers, frankincense, juniper, eucalyptus, coriander, thyme
AC/DC, Chemdawg, Trainwreck, Sour Diesel, Super Lemon Haze, Lemon Skunk, CBD Skunk Haze, Purple Kush, Blue Cheese, Finola, Futura, Banana Blaze, Master Kush, Blue Auto Mazar, Mokum’s Tulip, Ultimate, Cinderella Jack, Outlaw Amnesia, Xtreme, White Widow, Frisian Dew, Purple No. 1, Passion Fruit
Pinene (alpha and beta) may have the following properties and effects:
Entiedematous and antioxidant in pancreatitis, obesity, and arthritis.
Maybe antiosteoarthritic with additional chondrocyte protective properties (via PGE-1, inhibiting IL-6, TNF-α, and NO production and suppressing MAPK and NF-κB activities, free radical and ROS scavenging, reducing the production of the pancreatic tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and IL-6 during the induction of acute pancreatitis, potent inhibition of the IL-1β-induced inflammatory and catabolic pathways in chondrocytes, reforming the extracellular matrix in human chondrocytes)
Analgesic and antinociceptive, independent of CB receptors, may help relieve migraine and neuropathic pain (via significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects through inhibiting nociceptive stimulus-induced inflammatory infiltrates and COX-2 overexpression, a potential partial agonist at the μ-opioid and GABAAreceptors)
Antifungal against candida and other yeast (via inhibiting fungal structures such as pseudo-hyphae and promoting a marked decrease in blastoconidia, disrupting cell membrane integrity, suppressing respiration and ion transportation, altering membrane permeability)
Anti-bacterial with broad-spectrum activity against E. Coli, MRSA, may help combat antibacterial drug resistance (via bacteriostatic-bactericidal action, alterations in bacterial cell DNA causing membrane destruction and lysis of the cell, inhibiting bacterial efflux pumps, and synergy with antibiotics)
Antiviral, may possess properties against SARS-CoV-2, HSV-1, and anti-infectious bronchitis virus (via binding to the active site of Mpro, human serine protease TMPRSS2, and spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 in-silico, inhibition of HSV-1 plaque formation, inhibition of IBV replication, inhibition of binding process between RNA and IBV N protein of (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene)
Anti-leishmanial, antimalarial, and anthelmintic activity against soil-transmitted nematodes (via macrophage stimulation with minimum cytotoxicity, oocyte, and parasite toxicity)
Anxiolytic, sedative, and potentially antidepressant may be helpful in insomnia (via GABAergic activity, increasing the 5-HT (serotonin) and decreasing 5-HIAA, activation of β-adrenergic receptor subtypes)
Antidiabetic agent, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic, in diabetic mice decreased plasma glucose, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and HDL levels (via anti-inflammatory actions similar to and synergistic with glibenclamide, in part may block ATP-dependent K+ channels and the activation of LPL, mechanisms requiring further study)
Bronchodilation (via low-dose inhaled exposure in humans) May be cardioprotective and antihypertensive by considerably reducing heart rate and artery-generated blood pressure in rats (via actions on the vasomotor center of the medullary region of the brain and nucleus tractus solitarius)
Gastroprotective in preclinical studies with antiulcerogenic activity, potentially valuable for IBS as an antispasmodic, analgesic, and relaxing agent in the gut (via inhibition of cholinergic contraction, decreasing ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions and producing gastroprotective effects similar to ranitidine)
May increase the expulsion rate of ureteral stones (via potentially increasing urine excretion and antispasmodic effects, post-shock-wave lithotripsy administration)
Pinene is neuroprotective in cases of stroke and ischemia, may have anticonvulsant activity, may help Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and multiple sclerosis may assist in cognitive enhancement and neurogenesis, may counteract short-term memory deficits induced by THC intoxication (via GABAergic activity, significantly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects such as suppression of the TNF-α/NF-κB pathway, alleviates Aβ-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, neuroinflammation, and behavioral deficits, reducing interleukin 1β and TNF-α in the cortex and striatum, potentially differentiates mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal and astroglial lineages)
Promotes wound healing (via generating scars with adequate tensile strength, accelerating wound closure, acting as an adhesive of primary intention, and contributing to collagen deposition)
Anticancer may inhibit cancer cell growth in the liver, ovaries, lung, leukemia, lymphoma, prostate, and squamous cells (via inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and blood vessel formation by reduction of VEGF expression, provoking oxidative stress, activating natural killer cells via ERK/AKT Pathway, inducing cell cycle arrest, pinocytic activity, and inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation)
May improve topical drug penetration and systemic drug delivery (via nano emulsification, acting as a surfactant, imparting the nanoemulsions with low interface energy, and reducing the amount of the surfactant needed for maintaining a stable formulation)
Last reviewed by Dr. Abraham Benavides, M.D., 07-29-2022
Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and Pinene:
Endocannabinoidome (eCBome) and Pinene:
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Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.