WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids Cannabinoid Research

WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids Research Dashboard

94

Primary Studies

119

Related Studies

213

Total Studies

Clinical Studies

0

Clinical Meta-analyses

0

Double-blind human trials

0

Clinical human trials

Pre-Clinical Studies

5

Meta-analyses/Reviews

59

Animal studies

30

Laboratory studies

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CannaKeys has 213 studies associated with WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids.

Here is a small sampling of WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids studies by title:


Components of the WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids Research Dashboard

  • Top medical conditions associated with WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids
  • Proven effects in clinical trials for WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids
  • Receptors associated with WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids
  • Individual study details for WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids

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Overview - WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids

Description of WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids

WIN 55,212-2 is the most studied compound in the WIN-x group of synthetic cannabinoids. Other members that show up the CK primary study list include WIN 55-940 (full agonist at CB1 and CB2).


Here we focus on WIN 55,212-2.

Other Names:

WIN Family Synthetic Cannabinoids

WIN 55,212-2; WIN 55212-2; Win-55212-2; Win 55,212 plus numerous other supplier-based synonyms.


IUPAC name: [(11R)-2-methyl-11-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-9-oxa-1-azatricyclo[6.3.1.04,12]dodeca-2,4(12),5,7-tetraen-3-yl]-naphthalen-1-ylmethanone


Molecular Formula: C27H26N2O3


Source–PubChem

WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids Properties and Effects

WIN 55,212-2 may: 



  • Induce apoptosis is glioblastoma (A. Ellert-Miklaszewska et al., 2021)

  • Induce modulate dopamine with potential relevance to the effects of heroin (D. Gomez et al., 2021)

  • Induce neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects (D. Spyridakos et al., 2021)

  • Prevent the development of and/or attenuated established HIV-NP (E. Aly et al., 2021)

  • Mitigate SARS-CoV-2 pathology (L. Aragão et al., 2021)

  • Mitigate prostate cancer via CB2 (L. Pietrovito et al., 2020)

  • Mitigate cerebral hypoperfusion and associated cognitive decline (Da-Peng Wang et al., 2020)

  • Initiate therapeutic effects in human with MS (J. Tomas-Roig et al., 2020)

  • Co-adm. of Tramadol and WIN-55212 chronic neuropathies (M. Alsalem2020)

  • Neuroprotective (Z. Elmazoglu et al., 2020)

  • Increase the risk of headache medication overuse (C. Kopruszinski et al., 2020)

  • Worsen effects of METH (C. Dong et al., 2019)

  • Reduce cancer metastatic leukemia cell invasiveness (F. Gholizadeh et al., 2019)

  • Reduce pain in breast cancer (A. de Almeida et al., 2019)

  • Mitigate signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis (M. Morsch et al., 2018)

  • Inhibits renal cell carcinoma (M. Khan et al., 2018)

  • Diminish signs and symptoms of severe stress (O. Burstein et al., 2018)

  • Antipruritic (K. Bilir et al., 2018)

  • Anti-Myeloma Activity (M. Barbado et al., 2017)

  • Mitigate hyperexcitability-based diseases (F.o Carletti et al., 2016)

  • Reduce consequences of status epilepticus (E. Suleymanova et al., 2016)

  • Decreases inflammation with potential relevance to rheumatoid arthritis (T. Lowin et al., 2016)

  • Improves the HD-like symptoms in mice (S. Pietropaolo et al., 2015)

  • Inhibit metastasis of liver cancer cells (D. Xu et al., 2015)

  • Prevented the effects of shock (N. Korem et al., 2014)

  • Inhibit 5-fluorouracil-resistant gastric cancer cells (Xiang-Shu Xian et al., 2013)

  • Treat stress-induced noradrenergic dysfunction (B. Reyes et al., 2012)

  • Reduced sperm ATP levels via CB1 (D. Morgan et al., 2012)

  • Reduces (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration via PPAR-gamma (G. Fakhfouri et al., 2012)

  • Inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis (~50%) in test animals (A. Preet et al., 2012)

  • Induce significant analgesia in rodents with spinal cord injury (A. Hama et al., 2011; A. Hama et al., 2009)

  • Cause cell cycle arrest in gastric cancer (J. Park et al., 2011)

  • Represent a potential treatment for melanoma (M. Scuderi et al., 2011)

  • Induce apoptosis in lymphoma cells (A. Wasik et al., 2011)

  • Reduce symptoms of Parkinson's (Y. Chung et al., 2011; D. Price et al., 2009)

  • Mitigate skin and lung fibrosis (A. Servettaz et al., 2010)

  • Induce direct anti-atherosclerotic effects (Y. Zhao et al., 2010)

  • Abrogate the growth of endometriotic tissue (M. Leconte et al., 2010)

  • Inhibit gastric cancer cells (X. Xian et al., 2010)

  • May not be effective in the treatment of salicylate-induced tinnitus (Y. Zheng et al., 2010)

  • Reduce oral inflammatory pain as effective as morphine (E. Burgos et al., 2010)

  • Modulate inflammatory disease (O'Sullivan et al., 2010)

  • Make a shift from pathological to normal aging (Y. Marchalant et al., 2009)

  • Induce anti-fibrogenic effect (E. Garcia-Gonzalez et al., 2009)

  • Reduces viability of human Kaposi's sarcoma cells (T. Luca et al., 2009)

  • Induce apoptosis of liver cancer cells (M. Giuliano et al., 2009)

  • Downregulate adhesion molecules in multiple sclerosis (L. Mestre et al., 2009)

  • Induce gastro-protective effect via CB1 (N. Shujaa et al., 2009)

  • Inhibited metastasis of breast cancer in test animals (Z. Qamri et al., 2009)

  • Mitigate diabetic neuropathy (M. Bujalska 2008)

  • Induce apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells via CB2 (Y. Shi et al., 2008)

  • Inhibit cervical carcinoma cells (M. Rudolph et al., 2008)

  • Produce anti-inflammatory effect in rheumatoid model (E. Selvi et al., 2008)

  • Decreased inflammation and increase viral load in the CNS (R. Herrera et al., 2008)

  • Reduce pain in model of TMJ (M. Lee et al., 2008; D. Ahn et al., 2007)

  • Reduce zoster-associated pain (F. Hasnie et al., 2008)

  • Reduce pain via peripheral CB1 in nociceptors (N. Agarwal et al., 2007)

  • Reduce LPS-induced fever (K. Benamar et al., 2007)

  • Induce antidepressant effects (F. Bambico et al., 2007)

  • Stop radiation-induced emesis (N. Darmani et al., 2007)

  • Delay disease progression in model of ALS (L. Bilsland., 2006)

  • Reduced viability of ovarian cancer cells (R. McKallip et al., 2006)

  • Neuroprotective in Alzheimer's (B. Ramırez et al., 2005)

  • Produce apoptosis in prostate cancer cell line (S. Sarfaraz et al., 2005)

  • R(+)WIN55,212 reduced cardiac inflammation but led to increased parasitaemia (J. Croxford et al., 2005)

  • Reduce mantle cell lymphoma cell growth (J. Flygare et al., 2005)

  • Induce antinociception in diabetic mice (A. Doğrul et al., 2004)

  • Treat diabetic neuropathy (A. Ulugol et al., 2004)

  • Inhibit malignant skin tumors (M. Casanova et al., 2003)

  • Reduce neuropathic pain (G. Lim et al., 2003)

  • Inhibited gastroesophageal acid reflux in TLESR (A. Lehmann et al. 2002)

  • Ameliorated tremors and spasticity in multiple sclerosis (D. Baker et al., 2000)

  • Reduced intraocular pressure (Z. Song et al., 2000)

WIN-x Synthetic Cannabinoids Receptor Binding

Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and WIN 55,212-2: 


  • CB1 agonist with a Kd of ~2 nM (J. Kuster et al., 1993)

  • CB2 agonist with a Kd of ~12nM (S. Govaerts et al., 2004)


Endocannabinoidome (eCBome) and WIN 55,212-2: 


  • Modulates CB1, CB2 and blocks GIRK1 and 2 (D. An et al., 2021)

  • Modulates TRPA1 (T. Lowin et al., 2016)

  • Modulates TRPV1 (T. Lowin et al., 2016)

  • Modulates GABA (V. Chiodi et al., 2012)

  • Modulates glutamate (V. Chiodi et al., 2012)

  • Agonist at PPAR-gamma (G. Fakhfouri et al., 2012; S. O'Sullivan et al., 2010)

  • Agonist at PPAR-alpha (Y. Sun et al., 2007) • Activate serotonergic neurons (F. Bambico et al., 2007)

  • Modulate glutamate likely via CB1 (L. Ferraro et al., 2001)

  • Inhibits N-type calcium currents in neuroblastoma cells (K. Mackie et al., 1993; K. Mackie et al., 1992) 




Ki legend:



  • Full/strong agonist Ki ~1-9nM

  • Moderate agonist Ki ~10-99nM

  • Weak agonist Ki ~100-999nM

  • Very weak agonist Ki ~1,000-up nM


(The reader is reminded that a smaller Ki is associated with the strongest effects.)

Disclaimers: Information on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own physician or other medical professional. You should not use the information contained herein for diagnosing a health problem or disease. If using a product, you should read carefully all product packaging. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider.

Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.