Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal – Cannabis Research

Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal Research Dashboard


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CannaKeys has 210 studies associated with Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal.

Here is a small sampling of Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal studies by title:

Components of the Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal Research Dashboard

  • Dosing information available for Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal
  • Chemotype guidance for treating Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal with cannabis
  • Synopsis of cannabis research for Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal
  • Individual study details for Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal

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Overview - Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal

Description of Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal

Nicotine in various forms (e.g., cigarettes, chews, pipe tobacco, vape pens, etc.) is made from the tobacco plant. Acute tobacco poisoning, or nicotine poisoning, is a serious health risk that can be lethal. Nicotine, the primary addictive substance in tobacco, is a toxic compound that can lead to severe symptoms and complications when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin in large amounts. Symptoms of acute tobacco poisoning can range from nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain to seizures, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. Extreme cases can result in coma or death due to respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. 

Nicotine addiction develops over time. Nicotine receptors in the brain release dopamine, triggering a pleasurable effect. However, with chronic use, the number of nicotine receptors increases and changes the receptive structure of the brain. 

Nicotine addiction is a severe public health issue due to its harmful effects on the human body. Prolonged nicotine use can lead to severe health complications like heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer. It can also cause damage to the respiratory and circulatory systems, leading to chronic bronchitis, COPD, emphysema, and peripheral artery disease.

Besides physical health problems, nicotine addiction and withdrawal can induce mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, and mood disorders. Thus, the harmful effects of nicotine addiction are multi-faceted and far-reaching.

Having described the harmful effects of tobacco, we would be amiss not to mention the beneficial use of tobacco by Indian tribes. Tobacco use in First Nation ceremonies holds significant spiritual and cultural value. It is often used in rituals and offerings, symbolizing respect, gratitude, and communion with the spirits of nature. Tobacco use is sacred in this context, connecting participants with their ancestors and facilitating communication with the spiritual world. This ceremonial use often promotes community cohesion, fostering a sense of unity and shared identity among participants. Moreover, the ceremonial use of tobacco can even have psychological benefits, providing peace and well-being. Therefore, tobacco use in First Nation ceremonies has considerable subjective benefits, integral to their beliefs and traditions.

Disease Classification

Condition: Addiction - Nicotine
Disease Family: Addiction
Organ System: Mental/Emotional System, Nervous System
ICD-10 Chapter: Mental and Behavioural Disorders
ICD-10 Code: F17

Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal Symptoms:

Difficulty concentrating, mood swings (anxiety, anger, irritability, depression), craving for more nicotene, cough, hunger, weightgain, sleep disturbances

Also known as:

Tobacco dependence and withdrawal

Drug Interactions

THC Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can enhance the effects of drugs that cause sedation and depress the central nervous system, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol. 
  • THC is metabolized by an inhibitor of several enzymatic liver pathways referred to as cytochrome P450 (aka CYP450). There are more than 50 enzymes belonging to this enzyme family, several of which are responsible for the breakdown of common drugs such as antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, doxepin, fluvoxamine), antipsychotics (haloperidol, clozapine, Stelazine), beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol), bronchodilators (e.g., theophylline), or blood thinners (e.g., warfarin). Thus, patients taking these medication classes may find that THC increases the concentration and effects of these drugs and the impact duration.
  • Clinical observation (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggests no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 20mg THC.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with THC, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: or DrugBank Online.

CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Cannabidiol (CBD) may alter the action of metabolic enzymes (specific drug-transport mechanisms) and alter interactions with other drugs, some of which may produce therapeutic or adverse effects. For instance, CBD interacts with the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 2C19, increasing the bioavailability of anti-epileptic drugs such as clobazam (a benzodiazepine). This makes it possible to achieve the same results at significantly lower dosages, reducing treatment costs and risks of adverse effects. 
  • Groups of drugs affected include anti-epileptics, psychiatric drugs, and drugs affecting metabolic enzymes.
  • Clinical observations (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggest no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 100mg CBD.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: or DrugBank Online.

THC/CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

In general, when using cannabinoid-based therapeutics that contain both THC and CBD consider the ratio between them and weigh the relevant information displayed in the individual THC and CBD Drug Interaction windows accordingly.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with both primary cannabinoids and THC/CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: or DrugBank Online.

Concerns about Cannabis and Cancer-related Immunotherapies:
Some recent clinical observational studies have suggested that the co-administration of cannabinoid-based therapeutics and immunotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of certain types of cancer has been associated with worse overall survival rates (T. Taha et al., 2019; A. Biedny et al., 2020; G. Bar-Sela et al., 2020).

However, other studies have suggested that the co-commitment use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and cannabis-induced no such deleterious effects. More specifically, one trial was conducted on animals resulting in data suggesting that cannabis did not negatively affect the properties of immune checkpoint inhibitors (B. Waissengrin et al., 2023). The same authors compared the previous study results with findings from a cohort of 201 patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who received treatment with monotherapy pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment and adjunct cannabis to treat mainly pain and loss of appetite. Their time to tumor progression was 6.1 versus 5.6 months, and overall survival differed between 54.9 versus 23.6 months in cannabis-naïve patients and cannabis-using patients, respectively. However, while numerically different, the authors write that these differences were not statistically significant, leading them to suggest that “These data provide reassurance regarding the absence of a deleterious effect of cannabis in this clinical setting.”

Dosing Considerations

THC Dosage Considerations

  • THC micro dose:  0.1 mg to 0.4 mg
  • THC low dose:  0.5 mg to 5 mg
  • THC medium dose:  6 mg to 20 mg
  • THC high dose:  21 mg to 50+ mg

CBD Dosage Considerations

  • CBD low dose:  0.4 mg to 19 mg
  • CBD medium dose: 20 mg to 99 mg
  • CBD high dose:  100 mg to 800+ mg (upper limits tested ~1,500mg)

Information on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own licensed physician or other medical professional. You should not use the information contained herein for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. If using a product, you should read carefully all product packaging. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider.

Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.