Bone Fractures – Cannabis Research

Bone Fractures Research Dashboard


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CannaKeys has 21 studies associated with Bone Fractures.

Here is a small sampling of Bone Fractures studies by title:

Components of the Bone Fractures Research Dashboard

  • Dosing information available for Bone Fractures
  • Chemotype guidance for treating Bone Fractures with cannabis
  • Synopsis of cannabis research for Bone Fractures
  • Individual study details for Bone Fractures

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Overview - Bone Fractures

Description of Bone Fractures

Bone fractures are generally classified as closed or open (compound) fractures. The latter are fractures where bone segments protrude through the surrounding tissue. Bone fractures may also be further categorized according to the pattern, shape, cause, or body part affected.

Closed fractures can range in severity from mild hairline fractures to partial or complete fractures, but where the surrounding tissue is still intact. A compound fracture is easy to spot. Bone is sticking out through the skin. There is severe pain, and localized swelling and bleeding are present.

Complete but closed fracture presents with dangling limbs, severe pain, and swelling without external blood loss. A closed but incomplete or partial fracture may only present with pain and swelling like a sprain or strain but most likely with increased intensities. Rarely, compartment syndrome may develop after a severe fracture.

In the orthodox medical paradigm, a minor fracture, such as a hairline fracture, is immobilized and treated with pharmaceutical medication to reduce inflammation and pain. This is also known as a closed reduction.

A completely fractured bone or unstable fracture is set (realigned) manually or surgically if necessary, and then placed into a semi-permanent cast for a period of 3 to 10 weeks (depending on the location of the fracture and age of the patient); the idea being that the fracture must remain undisturbed to heal. This is usually termed open (surgical) reduction and occurs commonly with internal fixation (e.g., ORIF) utilizing plates, screws, wires, and intermediary nails.

The healing of bone fractures involves several factors. Local factors include fracture characteristics, as well as infection and blood supply. Systemic factors that cause poor healing include advanced age, obesity, anemia, endocrine dysfunction, steroid medications, malnutrition, and smoking. The interprofessional team can employ dietary supplements (e.g., calcium, protein, vitamins C and D), bone stimulators, or even bone grafts to promote fracture healing.

Disease Classification

Condition: Bone Fractures
Disease Family: Trauma
Organ System: Skeletal System
ICD-10 Chapter: N/A
ICD-10 Code: N/A

Bone Fractures Symptoms:

Pain (acute, can be severe), deformity of an affected body part, loss of skeletal integrity at affected part, swelling, loss or reduction or sensation in distal aspect, inability to bear weight, protruding bone, shortening of extremities, muscle spasms, bleeding, hematoma, bruising, nerve or artery damage

Also known as:

FX, broken bones, fracture (open vs. closed, displaced vs. non-displaced, oblique, transverse, longitudinal, greenstick, comminuted, segmental, spiral, stress, avulsion, buckle, or named by anatomic location)

Drug Interactions

THC Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can enhance the effects of drugs that cause sedation and depress the central nervous system, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol. 
  • THC is metabolized by an inhibitor of several enzymatic liver pathways referred to as cytochrome P450 (aka CYP450). There are more than 50 enzymes belonging to this enzyme family, several of which are responsible for the breakdown of common drugs such as antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, doxepin, fluvoxamine), antipsychotics (haloperidol, clozapine, Stelazine), beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol), bronchodilators (e.g., theophylline), or blood thinners (e.g., warfarin). Thus, patients taking these medication classes may find that THC increases the concentration and effects of these drugs and the impact duration.
  • Clinical observation (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggests no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 20mg THC.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with THC, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: or DrugBank Online.

CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Cannabidiol (CBD) may alter the action of metabolic enzymes (specific drug-transport mechanisms) and alter interactions with other drugs, some of which may produce therapeutic or adverse effects. For instance, CBD interacts with the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 2C19, increasing the bioavailability of anti-epileptic drugs such as clobazam (a benzodiazepine). This makes it possible to achieve the same results at significantly lower dosages, reducing treatment costs and risks of adverse effects. 
  • Groups of drugs affected include anti-epileptics, psychiatric drugs, and drugs affecting metabolic enzymes.
  • Clinical observations (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggest no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 100mg CBD.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: or DrugBank Online.

THC/CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

In general, when using cannabinoid-based therapeutics that contain both THC and CBD consider the ratio between them and weigh the relevant information displayed in the individual THC and CBD Drug Interaction windows accordingly.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with both primary cannabinoids and THC/CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: or DrugBank Online.

Concerns about Cannabis and Cancer-related Immunotherapies:
Some recent clinical observational studies have suggested that the co-administration of cannabinoid-based therapeutics and immunotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of certain types of cancer has been associated with worse overall survival rates (T. Taha et al., 2019; A. Biedny et al., 2020; G. Bar-Sela et al., 2020).

However, other studies have suggested that the co-commitment use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and cannabis-induced no such deleterious effects. More specifically, one trial was conducted on animals resulting in data suggesting that cannabis did not negatively affect the properties of immune checkpoint inhibitors (B. Waissengrin et al., 2023). The same authors compared the previous study results with findings from a cohort of 201 patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who received treatment with monotherapy pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment and adjunct cannabis to treat mainly pain and loss of appetite. Their time to tumor progression was 6.1 versus 5.6 months, and overall survival differed between 54.9 versus 23.6 months in cannabis-naïve patients and cannabis-using patients, respectively. However, while numerically different, the authors write that these differences were not statistically significant, leading them to suggest that “These data provide reassurance regarding the absence of a deleterious effect of cannabis in this clinical setting.”

Dosing Considerations

THC Dosage Considerations

  • THC micro dose:  0.1 mg to 0.4 mg
  • THC low dose:  0.5 mg to 5 mg
  • THC medium dose:  6 mg to 20 mg
  • THC high dose:  21 mg to 50+ mg

CBD Dosage Considerations

  • CBD low dose:  0.4 mg to 19 mg
  • CBD medium dose: 20 mg to 99 mg
  • CBD high dose:  100 mg to 800+ mg (upper limits tested ~1,500mg)

Information on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own licensed physician or other medical professional. You should not use the information contained herein for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. If using a product, you should read carefully all product packaging. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider.

Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.