Atherosclerosis – Cannabis Research

Atherosclerosis Research Dashboard

30

Primary Studies

57

Related Studies

87

Total Studies

Clinical Studies

0

Clinical Meta-analyses

4

Double-blind human trials

2

Clinical human trials

Pre-Clinical Studies

11

Meta-analyses/Reviews

8

Animal studies

5

Laboratory studies

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CannaKeys has 87 studies associated with Atherosclerosis.

Here is a small sampling of Atherosclerosis studies by title:


Components of the Atherosclerosis Research Dashboard

  • Dosing information available for Atherosclerosis
  • Chemotype guidance for treating Atherosclerosis with cannabis
  • Synopsis of cannabis research for Atherosclerosis
  • Individual study details for Atherosclerosis

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Overview - Atherosclerosis

Description of Atherosclerosis

In the past, atherosclerosis was primarily defined as the accumulation of plaque or bad cholesterol (LDL) within the arterial walls, leading to obstructions.


However, it is now understood to be more than a simple plaque buildup. Instead, this obstruction is a physical and inflammatory response to the walls' lining injuries.


Causes of arterial wall injuries include high blood pressure or blood sugar (diabetes), smoking and alcohol, free radicals, infectious microbes, or excessive presence of a specific amino acid called homocysteine.


Studies have demonstrated that inflammatory molecules stimulate events leading to the development of atherosclerotic lesions.


Some researchers consider atherosclerosis a natural band-aid approach to cover an injury or inflammation. However, when the band-aid becomes too thick or breaks loose, symptoms of a chronic or acute nature occur. In mild cases, this can lead to diminished oxygen supply to the tissue on the other side of the occlusion; in acute cases, it can cause severe strokes or heart attacks.


Unfortunately, many people will not realize they have heart disease until it becomes a medical emergency - on average, when a 70% occlusion is reached.


Heart disease is still the number one killer of men and women in the United States (CDC). Western pro-inflammatory diets combined with lifestyles involving smoking, alcohol drinking, or being overly sedentary have catapulted atherosclerosis to the top of the cause of death list. Therefore, it is imperative to promote prevention through yearly or regular health screenings and healthy living and diet.

Disease Classification

Condition: Atherosclerosis
Disease Family: Inflammatory Disease
Organ System: Cardiovascular System
ICD-10 Chapter: Diseases of the Circulatory System
ICD-10 Code: I70

Atherosclerosis Symptoms:

The narrowing of the arteries to the heart may cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, dizziness, altered mental state, chest pain, pain radiating down the left arm, pale skin, diaphoresis, nausea and vomiting, angina, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction. The narrowing of the arteries to the brain can cause symptoms such as severe headache, cognitive dysfunction, dizziness, loss of consciousness, blurred vision, numbness to face, stroke, jugular vein distention for example.

Also known as:

Atherosclerosis, heart disease, ischemic heart disease,, angina, angina pectoris (stable angina), atherosclerotic gangrene, artery occlusion

Drug Interactions

THC Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can enhance the effects of drugs that cause sedation and depress the central nervous system, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and alcohol. 
  • THC is metabolized by an inhibitor of several enzymatic liver pathways referred to as cytochrome P450 (aka CYP450). There are more than 50 enzymes belonging to this enzyme family, several of which are responsible for the breakdown of common drugs such as antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, doxepin, fluvoxamine), antipsychotics (haloperidol, clozapine, Stelazine), beta-blockers (e.g., propranolol), bronchodilators (e.g., theophylline), or blood thinners (e.g., warfarin). Thus, patients taking these medication classes may find that THC increases the concentration and effects of these drugs and the impact duration.
  • Clinical observation (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggests no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 20mg THC.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with THC, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

  • Cannabidiol (CBD) may alter the action of metabolic enzymes (specific drug-transport mechanisms) and alter interactions with other drugs, some of which may produce therapeutic or adverse effects. For instance, CBD interacts with the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 and cytochrome P450 2C19, increasing the bioavailability of anti-epileptic drugs such as clobazam (a benzodiazepine). This makes it possible to achieve the same results at significantly lower dosages, reducing treatment costs and risks of adverse effects. 
  • Groups of drugs affected include anti-epileptics, psychiatric drugs, and drugs affecting metabolic enzymes.
  • Clinical observations (not yet confirmed by clinical trials) suggest no likely interactions with other pharmaceuticals at a total daily dose of up to 100mg CBD.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

THC/CBD Interaction with Pharmaceutical Drugs

In general, when using cannabinoid-based therapeutics that contain both THC and CBD consider the ratio between them and weigh the relevant information displayed in the individual THC and CBD Drug Interaction windows accordingly.

If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with both primary cannabinoids and THC/CBD, consider visiting these free drug interaction checkers: Drugs.com or DrugBank Online.

Concerns about Cannabis and Cancer-related Immunotherapies:
Some recent clinical observational studies have suggested that the co-administration of cannabinoid-based therapeutics and immunotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of certain types of cancer has been associated with worse overall survival rates (T. Taha et al., 2019; A. Biedny et al., 2020; G. Bar-Sela et al., 2020).

However, other studies have suggested that the co-commitment use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and cannabis-induced no such deleterious effects. More specifically, one trial was conducted on animals resulting in data suggesting that cannabis did not negatively affect the properties of immune checkpoint inhibitors (B. Waissengrin et al., 2023). The same authors compared the previous study results with findings from a cohort of 201 patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who received treatment with monotherapy pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment and adjunct cannabis to treat mainly pain and loss of appetite. Their time to tumor progression was 6.1 versus 5.6 months, and overall survival differed between 54.9 versus 23.6 months in cannabis-naïve patients and cannabis-using patients, respectively. However, while numerically different, the authors write that these differences were not statistically significant, leading them to suggest that “These data provide reassurance regarding the absence of a deleterious effect of cannabis in this clinical setting.”

Dosing Considerations

THC Dosage Considerations

  • THC micro dose:  0.1 mg to 0.4 mg
  • THC low dose:  0.5 mg to 5 mg
  • THC medium dose:  6 mg to 20 mg
  • THC high dose:  21 mg to 50+ mg

CBD Dosage Considerations

  • CBD low dose:  0.4 mg to 19 mg
  • CBD medium dose: 20 mg to 99 mg
  • CBD high dose:  100 mg to 800+ mg (upper limits tested ~1,500mg)
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Disclaimer
Information on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own licensed physician or other medical professional. You should not use the information contained herein for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. If using a product, you should read carefully all product packaging. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider.

Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.