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Here is a small sampling of Humulene studies by title:
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Humulene is a sesquiterpene that, while relatively common, is often found in low concentrations.
As its name suggests, it provides an earthy, humus-like aroma.
Humulene has properties that are anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, analgesic, and have some anticancer activity.
Is Humulene safe?
Humulene appears as a pale liquid with colors ranging between yellow, green, and clear. Its concentrated form may irritate skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, including the respiratory tract.
IUPAC Name: (1E,4E,8E)-2,6,6,9-tetramethylcycloundeca-1,4,8-triene
Earthy, woodsy, spicy
Hops, Basil, black pepper, ginseng
Jack Herer, Chemdawg, Original Glue, Death Star, Sour Diesel
Humulene is associated with the following properties and effects:
Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects (via preventing both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) generation, eosinophil migration, reduced the production of prostaglandin E(2) [PGE(2)], as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression, inhibiting histamine release and NF-κB activation, AP-1, and stimulating antioxidants)
Anti-asthmatic and lung protective effects in a murine model of airways allergic inflammation (via reducing eosinophil migration into the BALF and lung tissue, modulation of Th1/Th2 balance, decreased mucus production, inhibition of IL-5, CCL11, and LTB4 levels and P-selectin expression, probably by inhibiting the activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1)
Antibacterial against enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, which causes inflammatory bowel disease (via antibiofilm effects, significantly reduced the expression of bmeB1 and bmeB3 genes involved in multidrug resistance)
Analgesic (via COX inhibition through a reduction of the PGE2 pathway, cannabimimetic actions, and perhaps other anti-inflammatory and non-opioid mechanisms)
Anticancer, antitumor activity, and chemo synergistic inhibits the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, ovarian cancer cells, lymphoblast cancer cells, breast cancer cells, and colon cancer cells (via induction of intrinsic apoptotic pathways both in vitro and in vivo through inhibiting Akt activation, GSH depletion and ROS production in tumor cells, potentiates paclitaxel passage and activity, synergy with doxorubicin in sensitive and partly resistant lines but not DOX-resistant lines)
Cannabimimemetic and cannabis synergistic (via cannabinoid and adenosine receptors)
Gastric mucosa protection may attenuate HCl/ethanol-induced gastritis (via inhibiting histamine release and NF-κB activation and stimulating antioxidants and mucosal protective factors, particularly Muc5ac and Muc6)
Last reviewed by Dr. Abraham Benavides, M.D., 04-28-2022
Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and Humulene:
Endocannabinoidome (eCBome) and Humulene:
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Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.