AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids Cannabinoid Research

AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids Research Dashboard


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CannaKeys has 264 studies associated with AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids.

Here is a small sampling of AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids studies by title:

Components of the AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids Research Dashboard

  • Top medical conditions associated with AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids
  • Proven effects in clinical trials for AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids
  • Receptors associated with AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids
  • Individual study details for AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids

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Overview - AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids

Description of AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids

The AM class of synthetic cannabinoids were largely developed, characterized, and subsequently named after Alexandros Makriyannis, a professor of biochemistry at Northeastern University in Boston.

The AM family of cannabinoids consists of over 40 individual members that produce diverse and varying effects via modulating various components of the ECS. Some members are also analogues with compound classified under a different heading such as for example AM-678 aka as JWH-018.

Here we focus on AM-251.

Other examples you will find in the primary study listings include is AM281 (CB1 antagonist), AM-404, AM-630 (CB2 antagonist), AM-1241 (CB2 agonist), AM-1248, AM-4113 (CB1 antagonist), AM-7410 (CB1 agonist), AM-5206 (FAAH inhibitor)

Other Names:

AM Family Synthetic Cannabinoids


Molecular Formula: C22H21Cl2IN4O

IUPAC Name: 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-piperidin-1-ylpyrazole-3-carboxamide


AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids Properties and Effects


  • Reduced sleep time and caused sleep fragmentation in test animals (S. Martin et al., 2022)

  • Reversed schizophrenia-like deficits in test animals (T. Stark et al., 2022)

  • Co-administration with verapamil counteracted the cognitive ill-effects of verapamil (S. Karimi et al., 2022)

  • Cocaine relapse prevention (J. Higginbotham et al., 2021)

  • Reduced Sindbis virus replication (J. Rodriguez et al., 2021)

  • Reduced the beneficial anti-depressive and analgesic effect of CBD (R. Malvestio et al., 2021)

  • Induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells (S. Louka et al., 2020)

  • Orally use improved glucose tolerance in diabetic mice (A. McCloskey et al., 2020)

  • CB2 agonism/antagonism-induced effects may depends on the phase of disease (Y. Burkovskiy 2020)

  • Increased human breast cancer stem cells invasion (F. Mohammadpour et al., 2017)

  • AM251 co-administration of magnesium or zinc produce antidepressant-like effect (S. Wośko et al., 2018)

  • May antidote synthetic cannabinoid poisoning e.g., hypothermic effects (G. Pryce et al., 2017)

  • Pre-treatment with AM-251 prevented cannabinoid-induced seizures (O. Malyshevskaya et al., 2017)

  • Reduced alcohol intake (Y. Zhou et al., 2016)

  • AM251 blocked antidepressant-like effect of CBD (A. Sartim et al., 2016)

  • May reverse MDMA dependence (Y. Nawata et al., 2016)

  • Induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells (S. Carpi et al., 2015)

  • Induced neurodegenerative effects (L. Caltana et al., 2015)

  • Improved analgesia secondary to burns (M. Ueda et al., 2014)

  • May play a role in the treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma (A. Benz et al., 2013)

  • Reduced albuminuria in diabetic mice (F. Barutta et al., 2010)

  • Antagonists at Mu-Opioid receptors (K. Seely et al., 2012)

  • May be useful in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence (C. Schindler et al., 2010)

  • May be useful to alleviate movement disorder in PD (H. Moghaddam et al., 2010)

  • May mitigates impairment of memory on withdrawal from Ecstasy (Y. Nawata et al., 2010)

  • Increase survival rate during hemorrhagic shock (Li-chao Hou et al., 2009)

  • Attenuates Nicotine Self-administration (M. Shoaib 2009)

  • Induced apoptosis in human melanoma cell lines (J. Timar et al., 2008)

  • Prolongs the survival of rats with severe, acute pancreatitis (K. Matsuda et al., 2005)

AM-x Synthetic Cannabinoids Receptor Binding

Endocannabinoid System (ECS) and AM-251:

  • CB1 full antagonist with a Ki ~8nM ()

Endocannabinoidome (eCBome) and AM-251:

  • Antagonists at Mu-Opioid receptors with a Ki of ~251nM (Kathryn A. Seely et al., 2012)

  • Positive allosteric modulators of GABA(A) receptors (R. Baur et al., 2012)

  • Activates TRPA1 (M. Patil et al., 2011)

  • Inhibits capsaicin responses (M. Patil et al., 2011)

  • GPR55 agonist ()

Ki legend:

  • Full/strong agonist Ki ~1-9nM

  • Moderate agonist Ki ~10-99nM

  • Weak agonist Ki ~100-999nM

  • Very weak agonist Ki ~1,000-up nM

(the reader is reminded that a smaller Ki is associated with the strongest effects)

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Information on this site is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over-the-counter medication is also available. Consult your physician, nutritionally oriented health care practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications.